Microbial assisted multifaceted amelioration processes of heavy-metal remediation: a clean perspective toward sustainable and greener future

  • Komal Agrawal (Creator)
  • Tannu Ruhil (Creator)
  • Vijai Kumar Gupta (National University of Ireland, Tallinn University of Technology) (Creator)
  • Pradeep Verma (Creator)



Rapidly increasing heavy metal waste has adversely affected the environment and the Earth’s health. The lack of appropriate remediation technologies has worsened the issue globally, especially in developing countries. Heavy-metals contaminants have severely impacted the environment and led to devastating conditions owing to their abundance and reactivity. As they are nondegradable, the potential risk increases even at a low concentration. However, heavy-metal remediation has increased with the up-gradation of technologies and integration of new approaches. Also, of all the treatment methodologies, microbial-assisted multifaceted approach for ameliorating heavy metals is a promising strategy for propagating the idea of a green and sustainable environment with minimal waste aggregation. Microbial remediation combined with different biotechniques could aid in unraveling new methods for eradicating heavy metals. Thus, the present review focuses on various microbial remediation approaches and their affecting factors, enabling recapitulation of the interplay between heavy-metals ions and microorganisms. Additionally, heavy-metals remediation mechanisms adapted by microorganisms, the role of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms, life cycle assessment (LCA), techno-economic assessment (TEA) limitations, and prospects of microbial-assisted amelioration of heavy-metals have been elaborated in the current review with focus toward “sustainable and greener future.”
Date made available2023
PublisherTaylor & Francis

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