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The best seeds mixtures were of the Cockle Park type. In the initial stages, good soil tilth and freedom from weeds may out‐weigh certain disadvantages in the formation of a pasture. The shelter afforded by the quick germination and growth of Italian Rye Grass is very important in areas affected by summer drought. Soil moisture is conserved and slower developing seeds show an increased germination and growth. In the later phases of turf formation, Wild White Clover takes the place of Italian Rye in conserving surface moisture: The passing of Red Clover and decrease of Rye Grasses must be compensated for by the growth and spread of Cocksfoot, Wild White Clover, Rough Stalked Meadow Grass and other grasses. The plots showed three phases in vegetation before a more stable flora was developed. The order of aggressiveness in the plots was: Italian Rye, Perennial Rye, Red Clover, next Cocksfoot followed by Wild White Clover, Bent and Rough Stalked Meadow Grass, then Timothy, Tall and Meadow Fescue. Burnet is too aggressive; Chicory is not so aggressive, is more palatable and quite as resistant to drought. Cocksfoot, Fescues and Wild White Clover are good drought resisters when once established. Tall and Meadow Fescues are depressed chiefly by Rye Grasses. In the plots studied, the late appearance of Fescues was due to delayed germination. Alsike Clover was a failure, and Timothy was not a success. A high seeding of Red Clover, or mixtures of Broad Red and Late Flowering Red Clovers are not always successful. Frequent or continuous cutting and removal of vegetation depresses growth in the following year. Lack of rolling or treading in small plots is a source of experimental error. The weed flora of the Pasture plots was small and in marked contrast to the Hay plots. In spite of initial differences, under similar treatment there is soon a marked tendency to develop a flora of the same proportions in all plots. Altering a seeds mixture suitable for a long ley or permanent pasture so as to obtain a heavy Hay cut from the early growth is unsound. It endangers turf formation, encourages inferior grasses and weeds, and depresses the useful plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)522-548
Number of pages27
JournalAnnals of Applied Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPrint publication - Aug 1930


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