A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity

M Abdalla*, A Hastings, Kun Cheng, Q Yue, David Chadwick, Mikk Espenberg, Jaak Truu, RM Rees, Pete Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

3 Citations (Scopus)
15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Cover crops play an increasingly important role in improving soil quality, reducing agricultural inputs and improving environmental sustainability. The main objectives of this critical global review and systematic analysis were to assess cover crop practices in the context of their impacts on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balances (NGHGB) and crop productivity. Only studies that investigated the impacts of cover crops and measured one or a combination of: nitrogen leaching, soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrous oxide (N2O), grain yield and nitrogen in grain of primary crop, and had a control treatment were included in the analysis. Long‐term studies were uncommon, with most data coming from studies lasting 2‐3 years. The literature search resulted in 106 studies carried out at 372 sites and covering different countries, climatic zones and management. Our analysis demonstrates that cover crops significantly (p<0.001) decreased N leaching and significantly (p<0.001) increased SOC sequestration without having significant (p>0.05) effects on direct N2O emissions. Cover crops could mitigate the NGHGB by 2.06 ±2.10 Mg CO2‐eq ha−1 y−1. One of the potential disadvantages of cover crops identified was the reduction in grain yield of the primary crop by ≈4%, compared to the control treatment. This drawback could be avoided by selecting mixed cover crops with a range of legumes and non‐legumes, which increased the yield by ≈13%. These advantages of cover crops justify their widespread adoption. However, management practices in relation to cover crops will need to be adapted to specific soil, management and regional climatic conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2530-2543
Number of pages14
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Volume25
Issue number8
Early online date7 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Aug 2019

Fingerprint

greenhouse gases
cover crops
leaching
nitrogen
crops
nitrous oxide
grain yield
environmental sustainability
soil management
soil organic carbon
soil quality
legumes

Keywords

  • Cover crop
  • Catch crop
  • N leaching
  • Soil organic carbon
  • N in grain
  • Nitrous oxide emissions
  • Net greenhouse gas balance
  • Green manure
  • Yield
  • N content
  • Nitrate
  • C sequestration

Cite this

Abdalla, M., Hastings, A., Cheng, K., Yue, Q., Chadwick, D., Espenberg, M., ... Smith, P. (2019). A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity. Global Change Biology, 25(8), 2530-2543. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14644
Abdalla, M ; Hastings, A ; Cheng, Kun ; Yue, Q ; Chadwick, David ; Espenberg, Mikk ; Truu, Jaak ; Rees, RM ; Smith, Pete. / A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity. In: Global Change Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 25, No. 8. pp. 2530-2543.
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Abdalla, M, Hastings, A, Cheng, K, Yue, Q, Chadwick, D, Espenberg, M, Truu, J, Rees, RM & Smith, P 2019, 'A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity', Global Change Biology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2530-2543. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14644

A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity. / Abdalla, M; Hastings, A; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Q; Chadwick, David; Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Jaak; Rees, RM; Smith, Pete.

In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 25, No. 8, 08.2019, p. 2530-2543.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T1 - A critical review of the impacts of cover crops on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balance and crop productivity

AU - Abdalla, M

AU - Hastings, A

AU - Cheng, Kun

AU - Yue, Q

AU - Chadwick, David

AU - Espenberg, Mikk

AU - Truu, Jaak

AU - Rees, RM

AU - Smith, Pete

PY - 2019/8

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AB - Cover crops play an increasingly important role in improving soil quality, reducing agricultural inputs and improving environmental sustainability. The main objectives of this critical global review and systematic analysis were to assess cover crop practices in the context of their impacts on nitrogen leaching, net greenhouse gas balances (NGHGB) and crop productivity. Only studies that investigated the impacts of cover crops and measured one or a combination of: nitrogen leaching, soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrous oxide (N2O), grain yield and nitrogen in grain of primary crop, and had a control treatment were included in the analysis. Long‐term studies were uncommon, with most data coming from studies lasting 2‐3 years. The literature search resulted in 106 studies carried out at 372 sites and covering different countries, climatic zones and management. Our analysis demonstrates that cover crops significantly (p<0.001) decreased N leaching and significantly (p<0.001) increased SOC sequestration without having significant (p>0.05) effects on direct N2O emissions. Cover crops could mitigate the NGHGB by 2.06 ±2.10 Mg CO2‐eq ha−1 y−1. One of the potential disadvantages of cover crops identified was the reduction in grain yield of the primary crop by ≈4%, compared to the control treatment. This drawback could be avoided by selecting mixed cover crops with a range of legumes and non‐legumes, which increased the yield by ≈13%. These advantages of cover crops justify their widespread adoption. However, management practices in relation to cover crops will need to be adapted to specific soil, management and regional climatic conditions.

KW - Cover crop

KW - Catch crop

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KW - Soil organic carbon

KW - N in grain

KW - Nitrous oxide emissions

KW - Net greenhouse gas balance

KW - Green manure

KW - Yield

KW - N content

KW - Nitrate

KW - C sequestration

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DO - 10.1111/gcb.14644

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JO - Global Change Biology

JF - Global Change Biology

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