A critical review on the recent trends of photocatalytic, antibacterial, antioxidant and nanohybrid applications of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles

Naveen Thakur*, Nikesh Thakur, Anil Kumar, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Susheel Kalia, Vedpriya Arya, Ashwani Kumar, Sunil Kumar, George Z. Kyzas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have become a focal point of research due to their widespread daily use and diverse synthesis methods, including physical, chemical, and environmentally sustainable approaches. These nanoparticles possess unique attributes such as size, shape, and surface functionality, making them particularly intriguing for applications in the biomedical field. The continuous exploration of TiO2 NPs is driven by the quest to enhance their multifunctionality, aiming to create next-generation products with superior performance. Recent research efforts have specifically focused on understanding the anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 NPs and evaluating their potential in various domains, including photocatalytic processes, antibacterial properties, antioxidant effects, and nanohybrid applications. The hypothesis guiding this research is that by exploring different synthesis methods, particularly chemical and environmentally friendly approaches, and incorporating doping and co-doping techniques, the properties of TiO2 NPs can be significantly improved for diverse applications. The study employs a comprehensive approach, investigating the effects of nanoparticle size, shape, dose, and exposure time on performance. The synthesis methods considered encompass both conventional chemical processes and environmentally friendly alternatives, with a focus on how doping and co-doping can enhance the properties of TiO2 NPs. The research unveils valuable insights into the distinct phases of TiO2 NPs and their potential across various applications. It sheds light on the improved properties achieved through doping and co-doping, showcasing advancements in photocatalytic processes, antibacterial efficacy, antioxidant capabilities, and nanohybrid applications. The study concludes by emphasizing regulatory aspects and offering suggestions for product enhancement. It provides recommendations for the reliable application of TiO2 NPs, addressing a comprehensive spectrum of critical aspects in TiO2 NP research and application. Overall, this research contributes to the evolving landscape of TiO2 NP utilization, offering valuable insights for the development of innovative and high-performance products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169815
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Early online date4 Jan 2024
Publication statusPrint publication - Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Antibacterial
  • Nanoparticles
  • Photocatalysis
  • Titanium oxide
  • Antioxidants
  • Nanoparticles/chemistry
  • Titanium/chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology


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