A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor

Chin Jian Yang, Lisa E Kursel, Anthony J Studer, Madelaine E Bartlett, Clinton J Whipple, John F Doebley*

*Corresponding author for this work

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor (ZmYAB2.1) and showed that the maize alleles of ZmYAB2.1 are either expressed at a lower level than teosinte alleles or disrupted by insertions in the sequences. tb1 and etb1.2 interact epistatically to control the length of internodes within the maize ear, which affects how densely the kernels are packed on the ear. The interaction effect is also observed at the level of gene expression, with tb1 acting as a repressor of ZmYAB2.1 expression. Curiously, ZmYAB2.1 was previously identified as a candidate gene for another domestication trait in maize, nonshattering ears. Consistent with this proposed role, ZmYAB2.1 is expressed in a narrow band of cells in immature ears that appears to represent a vestigial abscission (shattering) zone. Expression in this band of cells may also underlie the effect on internode elongation. The identification of ZmYAB2.1 as a background factor interacting with tb1 is a first step toward a gene-level understanding of how tb1 and the background within which it works evolved in concert during maize domestication.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1573-1585
Number of pages13
JournalGenetics
Volume204
Issue number4
Early online date10 Oct 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1 Dec 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Zea mays
Transcription Factors
Ear
Genes
Alleles
Genetic Background
Insertional Mutagenesis
Genotype
Genome
Phenotype
Gene Expression
Domestication

Cite this

Yang, Chin Jian ; Kursel, Lisa E ; Studer, Anthony J ; Bartlett, Madelaine E ; Whipple, Clinton J ; Doebley, John F. / A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor. In: Genetics. 2016 ; Vol. 204, No. 4. pp. 1573-1585.
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abstract = "The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor (ZmYAB2.1) and showed that the maize alleles of ZmYAB2.1 are either expressed at a lower level than teosinte alleles or disrupted by insertions in the sequences. tb1 and etb1.2 interact epistatically to control the length of internodes within the maize ear, which affects how densely the kernels are packed on the ear. The interaction effect is also observed at the level of gene expression, with tb1 acting as a repressor of ZmYAB2.1 expression. Curiously, ZmYAB2.1 was previously identified as a candidate gene for another domestication trait in maize, nonshattering ears. Consistent with this proposed role, ZmYAB2.1 is expressed in a narrow band of cells in immature ears that appears to represent a vestigial abscission (shattering) zone. Expression in this band of cells may also underlie the effect on internode elongation. The identification of ZmYAB2.1 as a background factor interacting with tb1 is a first step toward a gene-level understanding of how tb1 and the background within which it works evolved in concert during maize domestication.",
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A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor. / Yang, Chin Jian; Kursel, Lisa E; Studer, Anthony J; Bartlett, Madelaine E; Whipple, Clinton J; Doebley, John F.

In: Genetics, Vol. 204, No. 4, 01.12.2016, p. 1573-1585.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor

AU - Yang, Chin Jian

AU - Kursel, Lisa E

AU - Studer, Anthony J

AU - Bartlett, Madelaine E

AU - Whipple, Clinton J

AU - Doebley, John F

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N2 - The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor (ZmYAB2.1) and showed that the maize alleles of ZmYAB2.1 are either expressed at a lower level than teosinte alleles or disrupted by insertions in the sequences. tb1 and etb1.2 interact epistatically to control the length of internodes within the maize ear, which affects how densely the kernels are packed on the ear. The interaction effect is also observed at the level of gene expression, with tb1 acting as a repressor of ZmYAB2.1 expression. Curiously, ZmYAB2.1 was previously identified as a candidate gene for another domestication trait in maize, nonshattering ears. Consistent with this proposed role, ZmYAB2.1 is expressed in a narrow band of cells in immature ears that appears to represent a vestigial abscission (shattering) zone. Expression in this band of cells may also underlie the effect on internode elongation. The identification of ZmYAB2.1 as a background factor interacting with tb1 is a first step toward a gene-level understanding of how tb1 and the background within which it works evolved in concert during maize domestication.

AB - The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor (ZmYAB2.1) and showed that the maize alleles of ZmYAB2.1 are either expressed at a lower level than teosinte alleles or disrupted by insertions in the sequences. tb1 and etb1.2 interact epistatically to control the length of internodes within the maize ear, which affects how densely the kernels are packed on the ear. The interaction effect is also observed at the level of gene expression, with tb1 acting as a repressor of ZmYAB2.1 expression. Curiously, ZmYAB2.1 was previously identified as a candidate gene for another domestication trait in maize, nonshattering ears. Consistent with this proposed role, ZmYAB2.1 is expressed in a narrow band of cells in immature ears that appears to represent a vestigial abscission (shattering) zone. Expression in this band of cells may also underlie the effect on internode elongation. The identification of ZmYAB2.1 as a background factor interacting with tb1 is a first step toward a gene-level understanding of how tb1 and the background within which it works evolved in concert during maize domestication.

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DO - 10.1534/genetics.116.194928

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JF - Genetics

SN - 0016-6731

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