A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune

PC Brunner, TS Stefansson, J Fountaine, V Richina, BA McDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355 - 361
Number of pages7
JournalPhytopathology
Volume106
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusFirst published - 8 Mar 2016

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Azoles
Alleles
vpr Genes
Ascomycota
Pseudogenes
Hordeum
Sequence Analysis

Keywords

  • Intragenic recombination
  • Neofunctionalization
  • Selection

Cite this

Brunner, PC., Stefansson, TS., Fountaine, J., Richina, V., & McDonald, BA. (2016). A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune. Phytopathology, 106(4), 355 - 361. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-07-15-0158-R
Brunner, PC ; Stefansson, TS ; Fountaine, J ; Richina, V ; McDonald, BA. / A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune. In: Phytopathology. 2016 ; Vol. 106, No. 4. pp. 355 - 361.
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Brunner, PC, Stefansson, TS, Fountaine, J, Richina, V & McDonald, BA 2016, 'A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune', Phytopathology, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 355 - 361. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-07-15-0158-R

A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune. / Brunner, PC; Stefansson, TS; Fountaine, J; Richina, V; McDonald, BA.

In: Phytopathology, Vol. 106, No. 4, 08.03.2016, p. 355 - 361.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Stefansson, TS

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AB - CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners.

KW - Intragenic recombination

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Brunner PC, Stefansson TS, Fountaine J, Richina V, McDonald BA. A global analysis of CYP51 diversity and azole sensitivity in Rynchosporium commune. Phytopathology. 2016 Mar 8;106(4):355 - 361. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-07-15-0158-R