A physical, genetic and functional sequence assembly of the barley genome

International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1195 Citations (Scopus)


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical map of 4.98 Gb, with more than 3.90 Gb anchored to a high-resolution genetic map. Projecting a deep whole-genome shotgun assembly, complementary DNA and deep RNA sequence data onto this framework supports 79,379 transcript clusters, including 26,159 'high-confidence' genes with homology support from other plant genomes. Abundant alternative splicing, premature termination codons and novel transcriptionally active regions suggest that post-transcriptional processing forms an important regulatory layer. Survey sequences from diverse accessions reveal a landscape of extensive single-nucleotide variation. Our data provide a platform for both genome-assisted research and enabling contemporary crop improvement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-716
Number of pages6
Publication statusPrint publication - 29 Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Alternative splicing
  • Codon
  • Crops
  • Gene expression regulation,
  • Genomics
  • Hordeum
  • Repetitive sequences
  • DNA sequence analysis


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