An Africa-wide genomic evolution of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus involves selective sweeps, copy number variations, gene conversion and transposons

Gareth D Weedall, Jacob M Riveron, Jack Hearn, Helen Irving, Colince Kamdem, Caroline Fouet, Bradley J White, Charles S Wondji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens to reverse recent gains in malaria control. Deciphering patterns of gene flow and resistance evolution in malaria vectors is crucial to improving control strategies and preventing malaria resurgence. A genome-wide survey of Anopheles funestus genetic diversity Africa-wide revealed evidences of a major division between southern Africa and elsewhere, associated with different population histories. Three genomic regions exhibited strong signatures of selective sweeps, each spanning major resistance loci (CYP6P9a/b, GSTe2 and CYP9K1). However, a sharp regional contrast was observed between populations correlating with gene flow barriers. Signatures of complex molecular evolution of resistance were detected with evidence of copy number variation, transposon insertion and a gene conversion between CYP6P9a/b paralog genes. Temporal analyses of samples before and after bed net scale up suggest that these genomic changes are driven by this control intervention. Multiple independent selective sweeps at the same locus in different parts of Africa suggests that local evolution of resistance in malaria vectors may be a greater threat than trans-regional spread of resistance haplotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1008822
JournalPLoS Genetics
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Weedall et al.

Keywords

  • Africa
  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Anopheles/genetics
  • Cytochrome P450 Family 6/genetics
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • DNA Transposable Elements/genetics
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Gene Flow
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genome, Insect/genetics
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Insect Proteins/genetics
  • Insecticide Resistance/genetics
  • Malaria/parasitology
  • Metagenomics
  • Mosquito Control/methods
  • Mosquito Vectors/genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Pyrethrins
  • Whole Genome Sequencing

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