In-vivo models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection in pigs are required for the development of vaccines and investigations of pathogenicity. Existing models cause severe respiratory disease with pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea and severe thoracic pain, and careful monitoring and early intervention with euthanasia is, therefore, needed to avoid unnecessary suffering in experimental animals. As a potential replacement for the existing respiratory infection model, an in-vivo protocol was evaluated using intradermal or subcutaneous injection of different App strains and Apx toxins into the abdominal skin of pigs. High concentrations of serovar 1 and serovar 10 App induced diffuse visible dermal oedema and inflammation. Injection of Apx toxins alone did not adequately produce macroscopic lesions, although an influx of inflammatory cells was seen on histopathology. ApxI-producing strains of App induced more inflammation than ApxII- and ApxIII-producing strains. Induction of skin lesions by injection of App or Apx toxins was not sufficiently repeatable or discrete for a robust experimental model that could be used for assessment of novel interventions.
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- Actinobacillus Infections/prevention & control
- Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
- Bacterial Proteins
- Bacterial Toxins
- Hemolysin Proteins
- Models, Theoretical
- Swine Diseases
- animal model