An Experimental Dermal Oedema Model for Apx Toxins of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Francesca Soutter*, Simon L Priestnall, Brian Catchpole, Andrew N Rycroft

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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In-vivo models of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) infection in pigs are required for the development of vaccines and investigations of pathogenicity. Existing models cause severe respiratory disease with pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea and severe thoracic pain, and careful monitoring and early intervention with euthanasia is, therefore, needed to avoid unnecessary suffering in experimental animals. As a potential replacement for the existing respiratory infection model, an in-vivo protocol was evaluated using intradermal or subcutaneous injection of different App strains and Apx toxins into the abdominal skin of pigs. High concentrations of serovar 1 and serovar 10 App induced diffuse visible dermal oedema and inflammation. Injection of Apx toxins alone did not adequately produce macroscopic lesions, although an influx of inflammatory cells was seen on histopathology. ApxI-producing strains of App induced more inflammation than ApxII- and ApxIII-producing strains. Induction of skin lesions by injection of App or Apx toxins was not sufficiently repeatable or discrete for a robust experimental model that could be used for assessment of novel interventions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12-18
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Comparative Pathology
Early online date30 May 2022
Publication statusPrint publication - Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


  • Actinobacillus Infections/prevention & control
  • Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Edema/veterinary
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • Inflammation/veterinary
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases
  • skin
  • toxin
  • animal model


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