An Insight into Probiotics Bio-Route: Translocation from the Mother’s Gut to the Mammary Gland

Shanmugaprakasham Selvamani, Daniel Joe Dailin, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Mohd Wahid, Ho Chin Keat, Khairun Hani Natasya, Roslinda Abd Malek, Shafiul Haque, R. Z. Sayyed, Bassam Abomoelak, Dalia Sukmawati, Theodoros Varzakas, Hesham Ali El Enshasy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
103 Downloads (Pure)


Human breast milk (HBM) is unique in its composition as it is adapted to fulfil the newborns’ nutritional requirement and helps in improving the health of newborns. Besides various nutrients, the human milk also contains diverse group of microbiotas. The human milk microbiota has a remarkable impact on the growth and development of a newborn. Additionally, the human milk microbiota enhances the colonization of microbes in the gut of infants. Debates about the origin of HBM microbial flora remain premature and contradictory in some cases. Recent data suggest that the maternal gut microbiota has a major impact on microbial composition, areolar skin, and from the infant’s oral cavity. The current review investigates the possible route of microbial transfer from the maternal gut to mammary gland and suggests that it might occur through the entero-mammary pathway. It involves precise selection of probiotic microorganisms from the gut, as the human gut hosts trillions of microorganisms involved in gut homeostasis and other metabolic pathways. Gastrointestinal lymphatic vessels, macrophages, and dendritic cells are shown to play a significant role in the microbial transmission. Furthermore, the role of microbial factors in the development of neonatal immunity and translocation of secretory IgA (SIgA) cells from the intestinal lumen to GALT and finally to mammary glands via entero-mammary link are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7247
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number16
Early online date6 Aug 2021
Publication statusFirst published - 6 Aug 2021


  • breast milk
  • microbiome
  • probiotics
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • entero-mammary pathway


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