Heavy elements accumulate rapidly in the soil due to industrial activities and the industrial revolution, which significantly impact the morphology, physiology, and yield of crops. Heavy metal contamination will eventually affect the plant tolerance threshold and cause changes in the plant genome and genetic structure. Changes in the plant genome lead to changes in encoded proteins and protein sequences. Consuming these mutated products can seriously affect human and animal health. Bioremediation is a process that can be applied to reduce the adverse effects of heavy metals in the soil. In this regard, bioremediation using plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) as beneficial living agents can help to neutralize the negative interaction between the plant and the heavy metals. PGPRs suppress the adverse effects of heavy metals and the negative interaction of plant-heavy elements by different mechanisms such as biological adsorption and entrapment of heavy elements in extracellular capsules, reduction of metal ion concentration, and formation of complexes with metal ions inside the cell.
- Heavy metals
- Negative interaction