Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative

M. A. Sutton*, C. Milford, E. Nemitz, M. R. Theobald, P. W. Hill, D. Fowler, J. K. Schjoerring, M. E. Mattsson, K. H. Nielsen, S. Husted, J. W. Erisman, R. Otjes, A. Hensen, J. Mosquera, P. Cellier, B. Loubet, M. David, S. Genermont, A. Neftel, A. BlatterB. Herrmann, S. K. Jones, L. Horvath, E. C. Führer, K. Mantzanas, Z. Koukoura, M. Gallagher, P. Williams, M. Flynn, M. Riedo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new study to address the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia (NH3) with grasslands is applying a European transect to interpret NH3 fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions, grassland management and soil chemistry. Micrometeorological measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) with continuous NH3 detectors are supported by bioassays of the NH3 'stomatal compensation point' (Χs). Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) is also applied to enable flux measurements at one height; this is relevant to help address flux divergence due to gas-particle inter-conversion or presence of local sources in a landscape. Continuous measurements that contrast intensively managed grasslands with semi-natural grasslands allow a scaling up from 15 min values to seasonal means. The measurements demonstrate the bi-directional nature of NH3 fluxes, with typically daytime emission and small nocturnal deposition. They confirm the existence of enhanced NH3 emissions (e.g. 30 g N ha-1 d-1) following cutting of intensively managed swards. Further increased emissions follow fertilization with NH4NO3 (typically 70 g N ha-1 d-1). Measurements using REA support these patterns, but require a greater analytical precision than with the AGM. The results are being used to develop models of NH3 exchange. 'Canopy compensation point' resistance models reproduce bi-directional diurnal patterns, but currently lack a mechanistic basis to predict changes in relation to grassland phenology. An advance proposal here is the coupling of Χs to dynamic models of grassland C-N cycling, and a relationship with modelled plant substrate-N is shown. Applications of the work include incorporation of the resistance models in NH3 dispersion modelling and assessment of global change scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-145
Number of pages15
JournalPlant and Soil
Volume228
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

atmosphere-biosphere interaction
ammonia
grasslands
grassland
aerodynamics
eddy
sward
soil chemistry
flux measurement
global change
phenology
biosphere
grassland soils
range management
bioassay
transect
diurnal variation
divergence
canopy
dynamic models

Keywords

  • Compensation point
  • Fluxes
  • Grassland
  • Micrometeorology
  • Modelling
  • Relaxed eddy accumulation

Cite this

Sutton, M. A., Milford, C., Nemitz, E., Theobald, M. R., Hill, P. W., Fowler, D., ... Riedo, M. (2001). Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative. Plant and Soil, 228(1), 131-145. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004822100016
Sutton, M. A. ; Milford, C. ; Nemitz, E. ; Theobald, M. R. ; Hill, P. W. ; Fowler, D. ; Schjoerring, J. K. ; Mattsson, M. E. ; Nielsen, K. H. ; Husted, S. ; Erisman, J. W. ; Otjes, R. ; Hensen, A. ; Mosquera, J. ; Cellier, P. ; Loubet, B. ; David, M. ; Genermont, S. ; Neftel, A. ; Blatter, A. ; Herrmann, B. ; Jones, S. K. ; Horvath, L. ; Führer, E. C. ; Mantzanas, K. ; Koukoura, Z. ; Gallagher, M. ; Williams, P. ; Flynn, M. ; Riedo, M. / Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative. In: Plant and Soil. 2001 ; Vol. 228, No. 1. pp. 131-145.
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abstract = "A new study to address the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia (NH3) with grasslands is applying a European transect to interpret NH3 fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions, grassland management and soil chemistry. Micrometeorological measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) with continuous NH3 detectors are supported by bioassays of the NH3 'stomatal compensation point' (Χs). Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) is also applied to enable flux measurements at one height; this is relevant to help address flux divergence due to gas-particle inter-conversion or presence of local sources in a landscape. Continuous measurements that contrast intensively managed grasslands with semi-natural grasslands allow a scaling up from 15 min values to seasonal means. The measurements demonstrate the bi-directional nature of NH3 fluxes, with typically daytime emission and small nocturnal deposition. They confirm the existence of enhanced NH3 emissions (e.g. 30 g N ha-1 d-1) following cutting of intensively managed swards. Further increased emissions follow fertilization with NH4NO3 (typically 70 g N ha-1 d-1). Measurements using REA support these patterns, but require a greater analytical precision than with the AGM. The results are being used to develop models of NH3 exchange. 'Canopy compensation point' resistance models reproduce bi-directional diurnal patterns, but currently lack a mechanistic basis to predict changes in relation to grassland phenology. An advance proposal here is the coupling of Χs to dynamic models of grassland C-N cycling, and a relationship with modelled plant substrate-N is shown. Applications of the work include incorporation of the resistance models in NH3 dispersion modelling and assessment of global change scenarios.",
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Sutton, MA, Milford, C, Nemitz, E, Theobald, MR, Hill, PW, Fowler, D, Schjoerring, JK, Mattsson, ME, Nielsen, KH, Husted, S, Erisman, JW, Otjes, R, Hensen, A, Mosquera, J, Cellier, P, Loubet, B, David, M, Genermont, S, Neftel, A, Blatter, A, Herrmann, B, Jones, SK, Horvath, L, Führer, EC, Mantzanas, K, Koukoura, Z, Gallagher, M, Williams, P, Flynn, M & Riedo, M 2001, 'Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative', Plant and Soil, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 131-145. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004822100016

Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative. / Sutton, M. A.; Milford, C.; Nemitz, E.; Theobald, M. R.; Hill, P. W.; Fowler, D.; Schjoerring, J. K.; Mattsson, M. E.; Nielsen, K. H.; Husted, S.; Erisman, J. W.; Otjes, R.; Hensen, A.; Mosquera, J.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.; David, M.; Genermont, S.; Neftel, A.; Blatter, A.; Herrmann, B.; Jones, S. K.; Horvath, L.; Führer, E. C.; Mantzanas, K.; Koukoura, Z.; Gallagher, M.; Williams, P.; Flynn, M.; Riedo, M.

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 228, No. 1, 01.2001, p. 131-145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biosphere-atmosphere interactions of ammonia with grasslands: experimental strategy and results from a new European initiative

AU - Sutton, M. A.

AU - Milford, C.

AU - Nemitz, E.

AU - Theobald, M. R.

AU - Hill, P. W.

AU - Fowler, D.

AU - Schjoerring, J. K.

AU - Mattsson, M. E.

AU - Nielsen, K. H.

AU - Husted, S.

AU - Erisman, J. W.

AU - Otjes, R.

AU - Hensen, A.

AU - Mosquera, J.

AU - Cellier, P.

AU - Loubet, B.

AU - David, M.

AU - Genermont, S.

AU - Neftel, A.

AU - Blatter, A.

AU - Herrmann, B.

AU - Jones, S. K.

AU - Horvath, L.

AU - Führer, E. C.

AU - Mantzanas, K.

AU - Koukoura, Z.

AU - Gallagher, M.

AU - Williams, P.

AU - Flynn, M.

AU - Riedo, M.

PY - 2001/1

Y1 - 2001/1

N2 - A new study to address the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia (NH3) with grasslands is applying a European transect to interpret NH3 fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions, grassland management and soil chemistry. Micrometeorological measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) with continuous NH3 detectors are supported by bioassays of the NH3 'stomatal compensation point' (Χs). Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) is also applied to enable flux measurements at one height; this is relevant to help address flux divergence due to gas-particle inter-conversion or presence of local sources in a landscape. Continuous measurements that contrast intensively managed grasslands with semi-natural grasslands allow a scaling up from 15 min values to seasonal means. The measurements demonstrate the bi-directional nature of NH3 fluxes, with typically daytime emission and small nocturnal deposition. They confirm the existence of enhanced NH3 emissions (e.g. 30 g N ha-1 d-1) following cutting of intensively managed swards. Further increased emissions follow fertilization with NH4NO3 (typically 70 g N ha-1 d-1). Measurements using REA support these patterns, but require a greater analytical precision than with the AGM. The results are being used to develop models of NH3 exchange. 'Canopy compensation point' resistance models reproduce bi-directional diurnal patterns, but currently lack a mechanistic basis to predict changes in relation to grassland phenology. An advance proposal here is the coupling of Χs to dynamic models of grassland C-N cycling, and a relationship with modelled plant substrate-N is shown. Applications of the work include incorporation of the resistance models in NH3 dispersion modelling and assessment of global change scenarios.

AB - A new study to address the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia (NH3) with grasslands is applying a European transect to interpret NH3 fluxes in relation to atmospheric conditions, grassland management and soil chemistry. Micrometeorological measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM) with continuous NH3 detectors are supported by bioassays of the NH3 'stomatal compensation point' (Χs). Relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) is also applied to enable flux measurements at one height; this is relevant to help address flux divergence due to gas-particle inter-conversion or presence of local sources in a landscape. Continuous measurements that contrast intensively managed grasslands with semi-natural grasslands allow a scaling up from 15 min values to seasonal means. The measurements demonstrate the bi-directional nature of NH3 fluxes, with typically daytime emission and small nocturnal deposition. They confirm the existence of enhanced NH3 emissions (e.g. 30 g N ha-1 d-1) following cutting of intensively managed swards. Further increased emissions follow fertilization with NH4NO3 (typically 70 g N ha-1 d-1). Measurements using REA support these patterns, but require a greater analytical precision than with the AGM. The results are being used to develop models of NH3 exchange. 'Canopy compensation point' resistance models reproduce bi-directional diurnal patterns, but currently lack a mechanistic basis to predict changes in relation to grassland phenology. An advance proposal here is the coupling of Χs to dynamic models of grassland C-N cycling, and a relationship with modelled plant substrate-N is shown. Applications of the work include incorporation of the resistance models in NH3 dispersion modelling and assessment of global change scenarios.

KW - Compensation point

KW - Fluxes

KW - Grassland

KW - Micrometeorology

KW - Modelling

KW - Relaxed eddy accumulation

U2 - 10.1023/A:1004822100016

DO - 10.1023/A:1004822100016

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0035133325

VL - 228

SP - 131

EP - 145

JO - Plant and Soil

JF - Plant and Soil

SN - 0032-079X

IS - 1

ER -