Biosynthesis of rubellins in Ramularia collo-cygni – genetic basis and pathway proposition

F Dussart*, Dorota Jakubczyk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


The important disease Ramularia leaf spot of barley is caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni. The disease causes yield and quality losses as a result of a decrease in photosynthesis efficiency due to the appearance of necrotic spots on the leaf surface. The development of these typical Ramularia leaf spot symptoms is thought to be linked with the release of phytotoxic secondary metabolites called rubellins in the host. However, to date, neither the biosynthetic pathways leading to the production of these metabolites nor their exact role in disease development are known. Using a combined in silico genetic and biochemistry approach, we interrogated the genome of R. collo-cygni to identify a putative rubellin biosynthetic gene cluster. Here we report the identification of a gene cluster containing homologues of genes involved in the biosynthesis of related anthraquinone metabolites in closely related fungi. A putative pathway to rubellin biosynthesis involving the genes located on the candidate cluster is also proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3475
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number7
Early online date23 Mar 2022
Publication statusFirst published - 23 Mar 2022


  • Anthraquinone biosynthesis
  • Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase
  • Chrysophanol
  • Polyketide synthase
  • Ra-mularia collo-cygni
  • Rubellin
  • Secondary metabolite


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