Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management

J. W. Beniston, M. J. Shipitalo, R. Lal, E. A. Dayton, D. W. Hopkins, F. Jones, A. Joynes, J. A.J. Dungait*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary: There have been many studies on the effects of tillage on erosional losses from soil, but rarely have soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses been quantified simultaneously during a single erosion event. We applied a simulated rainfall event (70 mm hour-1) to plots within a gently sloping field (6%) in Ohio, USA, on which maize (C4) cultivation had replaced C3 vegetation several decades earlier. The plots were under different tillage management: (i) no till (NT100) for 42 years; (ii) NT100 plots from which 50% (NT50) or (iii) 100% (NT0) of crop residues were removed annually for 8 years; (iv) NT100 plots tilled 24 hours previously (TNT); and (v) conventional tillage (CT) for 28 years. Relationships between SOC, N and P concentrations and natural abundance13C:15N stable isotope values in the topsoils and sediments suggested that eroded SOC and TN were associated with the erosion of soil organic matter, whilst P losses were driven by the transport of the mineral fraction. Stable13C isotope analyses revealed that tillage and residue removal both increased the proportion of older (C3), rather than new (C4, maize-derived), SOC in eroded sediments. This study therefore demonstrated that a single tillage event after 42 years of continuous no-till caused larger erosional fluxes than 8 years of continuous removal of all maize residues, and that long-term conventional tillage resulted in the loss of a greater amount of older (> 28 years) SOC in eroded sediments, compared with continuous NT management.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-225
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Soil Science
Volume66
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes

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soil organic carbon
tillage
erosion
organic carbon
carbon
conventional tillage
soil
maize
sediments
no-tillage
corn
eroded soils
losses from soil
sediment
rainfall simulation
crop residues
soil erosion
topsoil
stable isotopes
crop residue

Bibliographical note

© 2014 British Society of Soil Science.

Cite this

Beniston, J. W. ; Shipitalo, M. J. ; Lal, R. ; Dayton, E. A. ; Hopkins, D. W. ; Jones, F. ; Joynes, A. ; Dungait, J. A.J. / Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management. In: European Journal of Soil Science. 2015 ; Vol. 66, No. 1. pp. 218-225.
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title = "Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management",
abstract = "Summary: There have been many studies on the effects of tillage on erosional losses from soil, but rarely have soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses been quantified simultaneously during a single erosion event. We applied a simulated rainfall event (70 mm hour-1) to plots within a gently sloping field (6{\%}) in Ohio, USA, on which maize (C4) cultivation had replaced C3 vegetation several decades earlier. The plots were under different tillage management: (i) no till (NT100) for 42 years; (ii) NT100 plots from which 50{\%} (NT50) or (iii) 100{\%} (NT0) of crop residues were removed annually for 8 years; (iv) NT100 plots tilled 24 hours previously (TNT); and (v) conventional tillage (CT) for 28 years. Relationships between SOC, N and P concentrations and natural abundance13C:15N stable isotope values in the topsoils and sediments suggested that eroded SOC and TN were associated with the erosion of soil organic matter, whilst P losses were driven by the transport of the mineral fraction. Stable13C isotope analyses revealed that tillage and residue removal both increased the proportion of older (C3), rather than new (C4, maize-derived), SOC in eroded sediments. This study therefore demonstrated that a single tillage event after 42 years of continuous no-till caused larger erosional fluxes than 8 years of continuous removal of all maize residues, and that long-term conventional tillage resulted in the loss of a greater amount of older (> 28 years) SOC in eroded sediments, compared with continuous NT management.",
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Beniston, JW, Shipitalo, MJ, Lal, R, Dayton, EA, Hopkins, DW, Jones, F, Joynes, A & Dungait, JAJ 2015, 'Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management', European Journal of Soil Science, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 218-225. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12205

Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management. / Beniston, J. W.; Shipitalo, M. J.; Lal, R.; Dayton, E. A.; Hopkins, D. W.; Jones, F.; Joynes, A.; Dungait, J. A.J.

In: European Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 66, No. 1, 01.01.2015, p. 218-225.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Carbon and macronutrient losses during accelerated erosion under different tillage and residue management

AU - Beniston, J. W.

AU - Shipitalo, M. J.

AU - Lal, R.

AU - Dayton, E. A.

AU - Hopkins, D. W.

AU - Jones, F.

AU - Joynes, A.

AU - Dungait, J. A.J.

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N2 - Summary: There have been many studies on the effects of tillage on erosional losses from soil, but rarely have soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses been quantified simultaneously during a single erosion event. We applied a simulated rainfall event (70 mm hour-1) to plots within a gently sloping field (6%) in Ohio, USA, on which maize (C4) cultivation had replaced C3 vegetation several decades earlier. The plots were under different tillage management: (i) no till (NT100) for 42 years; (ii) NT100 plots from which 50% (NT50) or (iii) 100% (NT0) of crop residues were removed annually for 8 years; (iv) NT100 plots tilled 24 hours previously (TNT); and (v) conventional tillage (CT) for 28 years. Relationships between SOC, N and P concentrations and natural abundance13C:15N stable isotope values in the topsoils and sediments suggested that eroded SOC and TN were associated with the erosion of soil organic matter, whilst P losses were driven by the transport of the mineral fraction. Stable13C isotope analyses revealed that tillage and residue removal both increased the proportion of older (C3), rather than new (C4, maize-derived), SOC in eroded sediments. This study therefore demonstrated that a single tillage event after 42 years of continuous no-till caused larger erosional fluxes than 8 years of continuous removal of all maize residues, and that long-term conventional tillage resulted in the loss of a greater amount of older (> 28 years) SOC in eroded sediments, compared with continuous NT management.

AB - Summary: There have been many studies on the effects of tillage on erosional losses from soil, but rarely have soil organic carbon (SOC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses been quantified simultaneously during a single erosion event. We applied a simulated rainfall event (70 mm hour-1) to plots within a gently sloping field (6%) in Ohio, USA, on which maize (C4) cultivation had replaced C3 vegetation several decades earlier. The plots were under different tillage management: (i) no till (NT100) for 42 years; (ii) NT100 plots from which 50% (NT50) or (iii) 100% (NT0) of crop residues were removed annually for 8 years; (iv) NT100 plots tilled 24 hours previously (TNT); and (v) conventional tillage (CT) for 28 years. Relationships between SOC, N and P concentrations and natural abundance13C:15N stable isotope values in the topsoils and sediments suggested that eroded SOC and TN were associated with the erosion of soil organic matter, whilst P losses were driven by the transport of the mineral fraction. Stable13C isotope analyses revealed that tillage and residue removal both increased the proportion of older (C3), rather than new (C4, maize-derived), SOC in eroded sediments. This study therefore demonstrated that a single tillage event after 42 years of continuous no-till caused larger erosional fluxes than 8 years of continuous removal of all maize residues, and that long-term conventional tillage resulted in the loss of a greater amount of older (> 28 years) SOC in eroded sediments, compared with continuous NT management.

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