Catalyzing innovation: Exploring iron oxide nanoparticles - Origins, advancements, and future application horizons

Pankaj Kumar, Nikesh Thakur, Kuldeep Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Ateet Dutt*, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Citlaly Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Pankaj Thakur, Andrés Navarrete, Naveen Thakur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Iron oxides, including wustite (FeO), hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and magnetite (Fe3O4), are remarkable nanomaterials. Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at the nanoscale display super-paramagnetic, high surface area, and biocompatibility, making them ideal for diverse applications. Their influence on matter behavior, interaction with light, electricity, magnetism, and non-toxicity in biological systems make them promise in biomedicine. This review covers IONPs' properties, emphasizing biological, chemical, and physical synthesis methods, including doping, coating, and encapsulation. In addition, advancing green synthesis approaches for IONPs are highlighted. We explore their applications in medicine, environmental science, and pollution solutions, emphasizing their merits. Examining various IONPs and synthesis routes, we underscore their role in addressing global challenges. IONPs versatility, scalability, and eco-friendliness position them to transform research and uphold ethical standards. This review unveils the transformative potential of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (IONPs), emphasizing their unique attributes—biocompatibility, magnetic responsiveness, and tunable surface functionalities. IONPs are pivotal in targeted drug delivery, imaging, hyperthermia therapy, and biosensing. The comprehensive exploration spans biomedical, agricultural, antioxidant, and photocatalytic applications, showcasing IONPs versatility in advancing innovative solutions across diverse domains. Our collective efforts aim to revolutionize medical treatments, combat environmental issues, and foster a sustainable future while advocating responsible research and ethics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number215750
JournalCoordination Chemistry Reviews
Early online date29 Feb 2024
Publication statusPrint publication - 15 May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier B.V.


  • Biomedical applications
  • Hematite
  • Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs)
  • Maghemite
  • Magnetite


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