Controllable functionalization of g-C3 N4 mediated all-solid-state (ASS) Z-scheme photocatalysts towards sustainable energy and environmental applications

Sheetal Sharma, Vishal Dutta, Pankaj Raizada, Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Quyet Van Le*, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Jayanta Kumar Biswas, Rangabhashiyam Selvasembian*, Pardeep Singh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


As an interesting conjugated polymer, g-C 3 N 4 has drawn huge interdisciplinary consideration as the latest research “hotspot” in energy conversion and wastewater mitigation. Nonetheless, due to less surface area and charge carrier transfer photocatalytic efficacy of g-C 3 N 4 is restricted. Lately, new advancements has been attained concerning avant-garde all-solid-state (ASS) Z-scheme systems to boost photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, coupling g-C 3 N 4 photocatalyst with appropriate photocatalyst to construct ASS Z-scheme structure proposes a significant way to enhance charge separation, expand the specific surface area and boost catalytic performance. This review extensively aims at g-C3 N 4 based ASS Z-scheme photocatalysts grounded on their structure, DFT calculations, photocatalytic properties, interface charge transfer, and drawbacks. We have predominantly introduced various techniques to enhance catalytic performances of g-C3 N 4 grounded ASS Z-scheme semiconductor photocatalysts. Apart from this, photocatalytic applications towards CO2 reduction, water splitting, bacterial disinfection, pollutant degradation are systematically discussed. Lastly, challenges and invigorating perspectives that g-C3 N4 grounded ASS Z-scheme semiconductor photocatalysts face are recapitulated and explored. In current paper, we have extensively focused on g-C3 N4 based ASS Z-scheme systems and expect that the present review on rapid-improving pace of research field is apt for engineering g-C3 N4 grounded ASS Z-scheme photocatalysts for sustainable advanced applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101972
JournalEnvironmental Technology and Innovation
Early online date23 Sept 2021
Publication statusPrint publication - Nov 2021


  • Advanced sustainable applications
  • Conjugated polymer g-C N
  • Designing of all-solid-state Z-scheme systems
  • Enhanced photocatalytic activity


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