Background: Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging techniques to detect intestinal inflammation in dogs are lacking. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and endoscopic narrow band imaging-like endoscopy (Storz Professional Image Enhancement System [SPIES]) might allow quantification of intestinal mucosal perfusion and microvessel density in chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) of dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives: Markers of mucosal perfusion as determined by CEUS and SPIES endoscopy are potentially useful diagnostic markers to help characterize CIE and correlate with histological inflammation type and severity. Animals: Thirty client-owned dogs diagnosed with CIE at a referral hospital were prospectively enrolled. Materials and Methods: Data from CEUS, SPIES, and white light (WL) endoscopy were correlated with World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) endoscopy and histology scores and vessel density as determined by immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor (vWF). Automated linear modeling was used to determine predictors of endoscopic and histologic severity. Results: Duodenal histology correlated with SPIES data (area percentage value, rho = 0.424, P =.04). White light endoscopy parameters correlated with SPIES parameters in the duodenum. Colonic histology correlated positively with CEUS, whereas colonic CEUS parameters correlated inversely with vWF expression. Several duodenal parameters combined predicted duodenal histology scores to a level of 73.4%. For the colon, 2 parameters contributed more than others to 73.1%. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: Minimally invasive CEUS and SPIES appear feasible to assess intestinal perfusion in CIE. Use of SPIES endoscopy may be promising for assessing small intestinal inflammation, whereas CEUS could be used to assess colonic perfusion and inflammation. Both techniques need to be investigated further for their clinical utility.
Bibliographical note© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
- inflammatory bowel disease
- von Willebrand factor