Current strategies and perspectives in detection and control of basal stem rot of oil palm

Yasmeen Siddiqui*, Arthy Surendran, R. Russell M. Paterson, Asgar Ali, Khairulmazmi Ahmad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


The rapid expansion of oil palm (OP) has led to its emergence as a commodity of strategic global importance. Palm oil is used extensively in food and as a precursor for biodiesel. The oil generates export earnings and bolsters the economy of many countries, particularly Indonesia and Malaysia. However, oil palms are prone to basal stem rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninense which is the most threatening disease of OP. The current control measures for BSR management including cultural practices, mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory. Alternative control measures to overcome the G. boninense problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and many potential bioagents were identified with little proven practical application. Planting OP varieties resistant to G. boninense could provide the ideal long-term solution to basal stem rot. The total resistance of palms to G. boninense has not yet been reported, and few examples of partial resistances have been observed. Importantly, basidiospores are now recognized as the method by which the disease is spread, and control methods require to be revaluated because of this phenomenon. Many methods developed to prevent the spread of the disease effectively are only tested at nursery levels and are only reported in national journals inhibiting the development of useful techniques globally. The initial procedures employed by the fungus to infect the OP require consideration in terms of the physiology of the growth of the fungus and its possible control. This review assesses critically the progress that has been made in BSR development and management in OP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2840-2849
Number of pages10
JournalSaudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPrint publication - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Biological control
  • Detection
  • Disease management
  • Elaeis guineensis
  • Ganoderma boninense
  • Plant resistance


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