CYP6P9-Driven Signatures of Selective Sweep of Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Reveal Contemporary Barriers to Gene Flow

Delia Doreen Djuicy, Jack Hearn, Magellan Tchouakui, Murielle J Wondji, Helen Irving, Fredros O Okumu, Charles S Wondji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threatens malaria control efforts in Africa. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic resistance is best understood for CYP6P9 genes in southern Africa in An. funestus. However, we do not know if this resistance mechanism is spreading across Africa and how it relates to broader patterns of gene flow across the continent. Nucleotide diversity of the CYP6P9a gene and the diversity pattern of five gene fragments spanning a region of 120 kb around the CYP6P9a gene were surveyed in mosquitoes from southern, eastern and central Africa. These analyses revealed that a Cyp6P9a resistance-associated allele has swept through southern and eastern Africa and is now fixed in these regions. A similar diversity profile was observed when analysing genomic regions located 34 kb upstream to 86 kb downstream of the CYP6P9a locus, concordant with a selective sweep throughout the rp1 locus. We identify reduced gene flow between southern/eastern Africa and central Africa, which we hypothesise is due to the Great Rift Valley. These potential barriers to gene flow are likely to prevent or slow the spread of CYP6P9-based resistance mechanism to other parts of Africa and would to be considered in future vector control interventions such as gene drive.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1314
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalGenes
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 5 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Africa/epidemiology
  • Africa, Eastern/epidemiology
  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Anopheles/genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics
  • Cytochrome P450 Family 6/genetics
  • Gene Flow/genetics
  • Genomics
  • Insect Proteins/genetics
  • Insect Vectors
  • Insecticide Resistance/genetics
  • Insecticides/pharmacology
  • Malaria/transmission
  • Mosquito Vectors/genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  • Pyrethrins/metabolism
  • Anopheles funestus
  • CYP6P9a gene
  • Africa
  • Resistance
  • Gene flow

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