The domestication of new tree crops is one means for improving food and nutritional security. In the last decade, a participatory domestication approach involving scientists and farmers in close collaboration has been developed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on satisfying household needs for tree foods and then growing to meet wider demands. The approach, when practiced in mixed agroforestry regimes that promote yields and resilience, has resulted in significant improvements in incomes, diets and in rural business development. In the next decade, successful agroforestry tree domestication approaches require scaling-up and better engagement is needed with markets. The domestication of the edible oil-producing tree allanblackia provides a model for the involvement of private-public partnerships in sustainable business development. © 2014 Daniel A Ofori.