Development and quality of barley husk adhesion correlates with changes in caryopsis cuticle biosynthesis and composition

M Brennan, Peter E. Hedley, CFE Topp, Jenny Morris, L Ramsay, S Mitchell, Tom Shepherd, William Thomas, SP Hoad*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, with poor quality adhesion causing “skinning”, an economically significant grain quality defect for the malting industry. Malting cultivars encompassing a range of husk adhesion qualities were grown under a misting treatment known to induce skinning. Development of the cementing layer was examined by electron microscopy and compositional changes of the cementing layer were investigated with gas-chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy. Changes in gene expression during adhesion development were examined with a custom barley microarray. The abundance of transcripts involved early in cuticular lipid biosynthesis, including those encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and all four members of the fatty acid elongase complex of enzymes, was significantly higher earlier in caryopsis development than later. Genes associated with subsequent cuticular lipid biosynthetic pathways were also expressed higher early in development, including the decarbonylation and reductive pathways, and sterol biosynthesis. Changes in cuticular composition indicate that lowered proportions of alkanes and higher proportions of fatty acids are associated with development of good quality husk adhesion, in addition to higher proportions of sterols.
Original languageEnglish
Article number672
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Volume10
Early online date24 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 24 May 2019

Fingerprint

hulls
adhesion
skinning
barley
biosynthesis
malting
fruits
sterols
fatty acids
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
cultivars
lipids
seed development
alkanes
early development
biochemical pathways
electron microscopy
gas chromatography
mass spectrometry
industry

Keywords

  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Caryopsis
  • Cementing layer
  • Grain development
  • Grain skinning
  • Husk adhesion
  • Plant cuticle

Cite this

Brennan, M ; Hedley, Peter E. ; Topp, CFE ; Morris, Jenny ; Ramsay, L ; Mitchell, S ; Shepherd, Tom ; Thomas, William ; Hoad, SP. / Development and quality of barley husk adhesion correlates with changes in caryopsis cuticle biosynthesis and composition. In: Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019 ; Vol. 10.
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abstract = "The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, with poor quality adhesion causing “skinning”, an economically significant grain quality defect for the malting industry. Malting cultivars encompassing a range of husk adhesion qualities were grown under a misting treatment known to induce skinning. Development of the cementing layer was examined by electron microscopy and compositional changes of the cementing layer were investigated with gas-chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy. Changes in gene expression during adhesion development were examined with a custom barley microarray. The abundance of transcripts involved early in cuticular lipid biosynthesis, including those encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and all four members of the fatty acid elongase complex of enzymes, was significantly higher earlier in caryopsis development than later. Genes associated with subsequent cuticular lipid biosynthetic pathways were also expressed higher early in development, including the decarbonylation and reductive pathways, and sterol biosynthesis. Changes in cuticular composition indicate that lowered proportions of alkanes and higher proportions of fatty acids are associated with development of good quality husk adhesion, in addition to higher proportions of sterols.",
keywords = "Barley (Hordeum vulgare), Caryopsis, Cementing layer, Grain development, Grain skinning, Husk adhesion, Plant cuticle",
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Development and quality of barley husk adhesion correlates with changes in caryopsis cuticle biosynthesis and composition. / Brennan, M; Hedley, Peter E.; Topp, CFE; Morris, Jenny; Ramsay, L; Mitchell, S; Shepherd, Tom; Thomas, William; Hoad, SP.

In: Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 10, 672, 24.05.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Development and quality of barley husk adhesion correlates with changes in caryopsis cuticle biosynthesis and composition

AU - Brennan, M

AU - Hedley, Peter E.

AU - Topp, CFE

AU - Morris, Jenny

AU - Ramsay, L

AU - Mitchell, S

AU - Shepherd, Tom

AU - Thomas, William

AU - Hoad, SP

PY - 2019/5/24

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N2 - The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, with poor quality adhesion causing “skinning”, an economically significant grain quality defect for the malting industry. Malting cultivars encompassing a range of husk adhesion qualities were grown under a misting treatment known to induce skinning. Development of the cementing layer was examined by electron microscopy and compositional changes of the cementing layer were investigated with gas-chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy. Changes in gene expression during adhesion development were examined with a custom barley microarray. The abundance of transcripts involved early in cuticular lipid biosynthesis, including those encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and all four members of the fatty acid elongase complex of enzymes, was significantly higher earlier in caryopsis development than later. Genes associated with subsequent cuticular lipid biosynthetic pathways were also expressed higher early in development, including the decarbonylation and reductive pathways, and sterol biosynthesis. Changes in cuticular composition indicate that lowered proportions of alkanes and higher proportions of fatty acids are associated with development of good quality husk adhesion, in addition to higher proportions of sterols.

AB - The caryopses of barley become firmly adhered to the husk during grain development through a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. The degree of this attachment varies among cultivars, with poor quality adhesion causing “skinning”, an economically significant grain quality defect for the malting industry. Malting cultivars encompassing a range of husk adhesion qualities were grown under a misting treatment known to induce skinning. Development of the cementing layer was examined by electron microscopy and compositional changes of the cementing layer were investigated with gas-chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy. Changes in gene expression during adhesion development were examined with a custom barley microarray. The abundance of transcripts involved early in cuticular lipid biosynthesis, including those encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and all four members of the fatty acid elongase complex of enzymes, was significantly higher earlier in caryopsis development than later. Genes associated with subsequent cuticular lipid biosynthetic pathways were also expressed higher early in development, including the decarbonylation and reductive pathways, and sterol biosynthesis. Changes in cuticular composition indicate that lowered proportions of alkanes and higher proportions of fatty acids are associated with development of good quality husk adhesion, in addition to higher proportions of sterols.

KW - Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

KW - Caryopsis

KW - Cementing layer

KW - Grain development

KW - Grain skinning

KW - Husk adhesion

KW - Plant cuticle

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JO - Frontiers in Plant Science

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