Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs

DA Sandercock*, Ian Gibson, Harry M Brash, KMD Rutherford, Marian E Scott, Andrea M Nolan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Background and Aims: Obtaining accurate and repeatable measurements of sensory thresholds in freely behaving animals presents a considerable challenge. The aim of these studies was to develop methods of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in juvenile pigs and evaluate two models of acute inflammatory pain.Methods: Two QST approaches were developed to detect allodynia and hyperalgesia; (1) von Frey filaments for mechanical force threshold testing around the tail root, and (2) noxious mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot pad. Assessment protocols were developed in three groupsof 8 juvenile pigs (7-9 weeks). Pigs were habituated to the investigators, apparatus and procedures before testing. Response thresholds and behaviours were measured before, and up to 24 h after inflamogen injection. Inflammation was induced by injection of capsaicin (10-100 μg) or carrageenan (3%) into the tail root or hind foot pad. Data analysed using GLM repeated measures ANOVA.Results: Inflamogen injection significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mechanical force thresholds in both tests and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were observed (tail flicking and foot withdrawal). Maximum reductions in force thresholds were measured 30 min after capsaicin and 4 hafter carrageenan injection. Conclusions: Quantification of thresholds using the two approaches reported provides reliable data. Capsaicin and carrageenan induced inflammation and hypersensitivity was measurable in pigs, and itsonset and duration was consistent with laboratory species. These approaches will be used in future studies to investigate the effects of neonatal tail-docking on nociceptive processing in pigs. Supported by BBSRC
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Journal of Pain
PublisherElsevier Ltd
PagesS79
Number of pages1
Volume13
Edition1
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 12 Oct 2009
Event6th Congress of the European Federation of IASP Chapters (EFIC) 2009: Pain in Europe VI - Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 9 Sep 200912 Sep 2009
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2https://efic2017.kenes.com/useful-links/previous-congresses#.XN634m7WHcs

Conference

Conference6th Congress of the European Federation of IASP Chapters (EFIC) 2009
CountryPortugal
CityLisbon
Period9/09/0912/09/09
Internet address

Fingerprint

capsaicin
carrageenan
swine
injection
tail
testing
inflammation
tail docking
hypersensitivity
quantitative analysis
pain
analysis of variance
pain assessment
duration
animals
methodology

Keywords

  • Quantitative sensory testing
  • QST
  • Pig
  • Juvenile
  • Mechanical stimulation
  • Response thresholds
  • Plantar stimulator
  • Acute inflammatory pain
  • Withdrawal thresholds
  • Capsaicin
  • Carrageenan
  • Hypersensitivity

Cite this

Sandercock, DA., Gibson, I., Brash, H. M., Rutherford, KMD., Scott, M. E., & Nolan, A. M. (2009). Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs. In European Journal of Pain (1 ed., Vol. 13, pp. S79). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2
Sandercock, DA ; Gibson, Ian ; Brash, Harry M ; Rutherford, KMD ; Scott, Marian E ; Nolan, Andrea M. / Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs. European Journal of Pain. Vol. 13 1. ed. Elsevier Ltd, 2009. pp. S79
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title = "Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs",
abstract = "Background and Aims: Obtaining accurate and repeatable measurements of sensory thresholds in freely behaving animals presents a considerable challenge. The aim of these studies was to develop methods of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in juvenile pigs and evaluate two models of acute inflammatory pain.Methods: Two QST approaches were developed to detect allodynia and hyperalgesia; (1) von Frey filaments for mechanical force threshold testing around the tail root, and (2) noxious mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot pad. Assessment protocols were developed in three groupsof 8 juvenile pigs (7-9 weeks). Pigs were habituated to the investigators, apparatus and procedures before testing. Response thresholds and behaviours were measured before, and up to 24 h after inflamogen injection. Inflammation was induced by injection of capsaicin (10-100 μg) or carrageenan (3{\%}) into the tail root or hind foot pad. Data analysed using GLM repeated measures ANOVA.Results: Inflamogen injection significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mechanical force thresholds in both tests and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were observed (tail flicking and foot withdrawal). Maximum reductions in force thresholds were measured 30 min after capsaicin and 4 hafter carrageenan injection. Conclusions: Quantification of thresholds using the two approaches reported provides reliable data. Capsaicin and carrageenan induced inflammation and hypersensitivity was measurable in pigs, and itsonset and duration was consistent with laboratory species. These approaches will be used in future studies to investigate the effects of neonatal tail-docking on nociceptive processing in pigs. Supported by BBSRC",
keywords = "Quantitative sensory testing, QST, Pig, Juvenile, Mechanical stimulation, Response thresholds, Plantar stimulator, Acute inflammatory pain, Withdrawal thresholds, Capsaicin, Carrageenan, Hypersensitivity",
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Sandercock, DA, Gibson, I, Brash, HM, Rutherford, KMD, Scott, ME & Nolan, AM 2009, Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs. in European Journal of Pain. 1 edn, vol. 13, Elsevier Ltd, pp. S79, 6th Congress of the European Federation of IASP Chapters (EFIC) 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, 9/09/09. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2

Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs. / Sandercock, DA; Gibson, Ian; Brash, Harry M; Rutherford, KMD; Scott, Marian E; Nolan, Andrea M.

European Journal of Pain. Vol. 13 1. ed. Elsevier Ltd, 2009. p. S79.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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T1 - Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs

AU - Sandercock, DA

AU - Gibson, Ian

AU - Brash, Harry M

AU - Rutherford, KMD

AU - Scott, Marian E

AU - Nolan, Andrea M

PY - 2009/10/12

Y1 - 2009/10/12

N2 - Background and Aims: Obtaining accurate and repeatable measurements of sensory thresholds in freely behaving animals presents a considerable challenge. The aim of these studies was to develop methods of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in juvenile pigs and evaluate two models of acute inflammatory pain.Methods: Two QST approaches were developed to detect allodynia and hyperalgesia; (1) von Frey filaments for mechanical force threshold testing around the tail root, and (2) noxious mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot pad. Assessment protocols were developed in three groupsof 8 juvenile pigs (7-9 weeks). Pigs were habituated to the investigators, apparatus and procedures before testing. Response thresholds and behaviours were measured before, and up to 24 h after inflamogen injection. Inflammation was induced by injection of capsaicin (10-100 μg) or carrageenan (3%) into the tail root or hind foot pad. Data analysed using GLM repeated measures ANOVA.Results: Inflamogen injection significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mechanical force thresholds in both tests and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were observed (tail flicking and foot withdrawal). Maximum reductions in force thresholds were measured 30 min after capsaicin and 4 hafter carrageenan injection. Conclusions: Quantification of thresholds using the two approaches reported provides reliable data. Capsaicin and carrageenan induced inflammation and hypersensitivity was measurable in pigs, and itsonset and duration was consistent with laboratory species. These approaches will be used in future studies to investigate the effects of neonatal tail-docking on nociceptive processing in pigs. Supported by BBSRC

AB - Background and Aims: Obtaining accurate and repeatable measurements of sensory thresholds in freely behaving animals presents a considerable challenge. The aim of these studies was to develop methods of quantitative sensory testing (QST) in juvenile pigs and evaluate two models of acute inflammatory pain.Methods: Two QST approaches were developed to detect allodynia and hyperalgesia; (1) von Frey filaments for mechanical force threshold testing around the tail root, and (2) noxious mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot pad. Assessment protocols were developed in three groupsof 8 juvenile pigs (7-9 weeks). Pigs were habituated to the investigators, apparatus and procedures before testing. Response thresholds and behaviours were measured before, and up to 24 h after inflamogen injection. Inflammation was induced by injection of capsaicin (10-100 μg) or carrageenan (3%) into the tail root or hind foot pad. Data analysed using GLM repeated measures ANOVA.Results: Inflamogen injection significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mechanical force thresholds in both tests and behavioural signs of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were observed (tail flicking and foot withdrawal). Maximum reductions in force thresholds were measured 30 min after capsaicin and 4 hafter carrageenan injection. Conclusions: Quantification of thresholds using the two approaches reported provides reliable data. Capsaicin and carrageenan induced inflammation and hypersensitivity was measurable in pigs, and itsonset and duration was consistent with laboratory species. These approaches will be used in future studies to investigate the effects of neonatal tail-docking on nociceptive processing in pigs. Supported by BBSRC

KW - Quantitative sensory testing

KW - QST

KW - Pig

KW - Juvenile

KW - Mechanical stimulation

KW - Response thresholds

KW - Plantar stimulator

KW - Acute inflammatory pain

KW - Withdrawal thresholds

KW - Capsaicin

KW - Carrageenan

KW - Hypersensitivity

U2 - https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2

DO - https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2

M3 - Conference contribution

VL - 13

SP - S79

BT - European Journal of Pain

PB - Elsevier Ltd

ER -

Sandercock DA, Gibson I, Brash HM, Rutherford KMD, Scott ME, Nolan AM. Development of quantitative mechanical sensory testing approaches for pain assessment in pigs. In European Journal of Pain. 1 ed. Vol. 13. Elsevier Ltd. 2009. p. S79 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-3801(09)60251-2