Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

Reimo Kindler, Jan Siemens*, Klaus Kaiser, David C. Walmsley, Christian Bernhofer, Nina Buchmann, Pierre Cellier, Werner Eugster, Gerd Gleixner, Thomas Grunwald, Alexander Heim, Andreas Ibrom, Stephanie K. Jones, Mike Jones, Katja Klumpp, Werner Kutsch, Klaus Steenberg Larsen, Simon Lehuger, Benjamin Loubet, Rebecca MckenzieEddy Moors, Bruce Osborne, Kim Pilegaard, Corinna Rebmann, Matthew Saunders, Michael W.I. Schmidt, Marion Schrumpf, Janine Seyfferth, Ute Skiba, Jean Francois Soussana, Mark A. Sutton, Cindy Tefs, Bernhard Vowinckel, Matthias J. Zeeman, Martin Kaupenjohann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

245 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its δ13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.3±4.9gm-2yr-1 for forests, 24.1±7.2gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 14.6±4.8gm-2yr-1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.5±1.3gm-2yr-1 for forests, 5.3±2.0gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 4.1±1.3gm-2yr-1 for croplands. The average flux of total biogenic carbon across land use systems was 19.4±4.0gCm-2yr-1. Production of DOC in topsoils was positively related to their C/N ratio and DOC retention in subsoils was inversely related to the ratio of organic carbon to iron plus aluminium (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5-98% (median: 22%) of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24-105% (median: 25%). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1167-1185
Number of pages19
JournalGlobal Change Biology
Volume17
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Feb 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

carbon balance
Ecosystems
Leaching
Carbon
leaching
dissolved inorganic carbon
Soils
ecosystem
carbon
dissolved organic carbon
soil
Organic carbon
grassland
net ecosystem exchange
soil air
land use
Fluxes
Land use
partial pressure
subsoil

Keywords

  • Carbon cycle
  • Carbon sequestration
  • DIC
  • Dissolved inorganic carbon
  • Dissolved organic carbon
  • DOC
  • Methane
  • Net biome productivity
  • Net ecosystem exchange

Cite this

Kindler, R., Siemens, J., Kaiser, K., Walmsley, D. C., Bernhofer, C., Buchmann, N., ... Kaupenjohann, M. (2011). Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance. Global Change Biology, 17(2), 1167-1185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02282.x
Kindler, Reimo ; Siemens, Jan ; Kaiser, Klaus ; Walmsley, David C. ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Cellier, Pierre ; Eugster, Werner ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Grunwald, Thomas ; Heim, Alexander ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Jones, Stephanie K. ; Jones, Mike ; Klumpp, Katja ; Kutsch, Werner ; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg ; Lehuger, Simon ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Mckenzie, Rebecca ; Moors, Eddy ; Osborne, Bruce ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Rebmann, Corinna ; Saunders, Matthew ; Schmidt, Michael W.I. ; Schrumpf, Marion ; Seyfferth, Janine ; Skiba, Ute ; Soussana, Jean Francois ; Sutton, Mark A. ; Tefs, Cindy ; Vowinckel, Bernhard ; Zeeman, Matthias J. ; Kaupenjohann, Martin. / Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance. In: Global Change Biology. 2011 ; Vol. 17, No. 2. pp. 1167-1185.
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abstract = "Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its δ13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.3±4.9gm-2yr-1 for forests, 24.1±7.2gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 14.6±4.8gm-2yr-1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.5±1.3gm-2yr-1 for forests, 5.3±2.0gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 4.1±1.3gm-2yr-1 for croplands. The average flux of total biogenic carbon across land use systems was 19.4±4.0gCm-2yr-1. Production of DOC in topsoils was positively related to their C/N ratio and DOC retention in subsoils was inversely related to the ratio of organic carbon to iron plus aluminium (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5-98{\%} (median: 22{\%}) of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24-105{\%} (median: 25{\%}). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems.",
keywords = "Carbon cycle, Carbon sequestration, DIC, Dissolved inorganic carbon, Dissolved organic carbon, DOC, Methane, Net biome productivity, Net ecosystem exchange",
author = "Reimo Kindler and Jan Siemens and Klaus Kaiser and Walmsley, {David C.} and Christian Bernhofer and Nina Buchmann and Pierre Cellier and Werner Eugster and Gerd Gleixner and Thomas Grunwald and Alexander Heim and Andreas Ibrom and Jones, {Stephanie K.} and Mike Jones and Katja Klumpp and Werner Kutsch and Larsen, {Klaus Steenberg} and Simon Lehuger and Benjamin Loubet and Rebecca Mckenzie and Eddy Moors and Bruce Osborne and Kim Pilegaard and Corinna Rebmann and Matthew Saunders and Schmidt, {Michael W.I.} and Marion Schrumpf and Janine Seyfferth and Ute Skiba and Soussana, {Jean Francois} and Sutton, {Mark A.} and Cindy Tefs and Bernhard Vowinckel and Zeeman, {Matthias J.} and Martin Kaupenjohann",
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Kindler, R, Siemens, J, Kaiser, K, Walmsley, DC, Bernhofer, C, Buchmann, N, Cellier, P, Eugster, W, Gleixner, G, Grunwald, T, Heim, A, Ibrom, A, Jones, SK, Jones, M, Klumpp, K, Kutsch, W, Larsen, KS, Lehuger, S, Loubet, B, Mckenzie, R, Moors, E, Osborne, B, Pilegaard, K, Rebmann, C, Saunders, M, Schmidt, MWI, Schrumpf, M, Seyfferth, J, Skiba, U, Soussana, JF, Sutton, MA, Tefs, C, Vowinckel, B, Zeeman, MJ & Kaupenjohann, M 2011, 'Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance', Global Change Biology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 1167-1185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02282.x

Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance. / Kindler, Reimo; Siemens, Jan; Kaiser, Klaus; Walmsley, David C.; Bernhofer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Cellier, Pierre; Eugster, Werner; Gleixner, Gerd; Grunwald, Thomas; Heim, Alexander; Ibrom, Andreas; Jones, Stephanie K.; Jones, Mike; Klumpp, Katja; Kutsch, Werner; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Lehuger, Simon; Loubet, Benjamin; Mckenzie, Rebecca; Moors, Eddy; Osborne, Bruce; Pilegaard, Kim; Rebmann, Corinna; Saunders, Matthew; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Schrumpf, Marion; Seyfferth, Janine; Skiba, Ute; Soussana, Jean Francois; Sutton, Mark A.; Tefs, Cindy; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Zeeman, Matthias J.; Kaupenjohann, Martin.

In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 02.2011, p. 1167-1185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dissolved carbon leaching from soil is a crucial component of the net ecosystem carbon balance

AU - Kindler, Reimo

AU - Siemens, Jan

AU - Kaiser, Klaus

AU - Walmsley, David C.

AU - Bernhofer, Christian

AU - Buchmann, Nina

AU - Cellier, Pierre

AU - Eugster, Werner

AU - Gleixner, Gerd

AU - Grunwald, Thomas

AU - Heim, Alexander

AU - Ibrom, Andreas

AU - Jones, Stephanie K.

AU - Jones, Mike

AU - Klumpp, Katja

AU - Kutsch, Werner

AU - Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

AU - Lehuger, Simon

AU - Loubet, Benjamin

AU - Mckenzie, Rebecca

AU - Moors, Eddy

AU - Osborne, Bruce

AU - Pilegaard, Kim

AU - Rebmann, Corinna

AU - Saunders, Matthew

AU - Schmidt, Michael W.I.

AU - Schrumpf, Marion

AU - Seyfferth, Janine

AU - Skiba, Ute

AU - Soussana, Jean Francois

AU - Sutton, Mark A.

AU - Tefs, Cindy

AU - Vowinckel, Bernhard

AU - Zeeman, Matthias J.

AU - Kaupenjohann, Martin

PY - 2011/2

Y1 - 2011/2

N2 - Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its δ13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.3±4.9gm-2yr-1 for forests, 24.1±7.2gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 14.6±4.8gm-2yr-1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.5±1.3gm-2yr-1 for forests, 5.3±2.0gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 4.1±1.3gm-2yr-1 for croplands. The average flux of total biogenic carbon across land use systems was 19.4±4.0gCm-2yr-1. Production of DOC in topsoils was positively related to their C/N ratio and DOC retention in subsoils was inversely related to the ratio of organic carbon to iron plus aluminium (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5-98% (median: 22%) of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24-105% (median: 25%). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems.

AB - Estimates of carbon leaching losses from different land use systems are few and their contribution to the net ecosystem carbon balance is uncertain. We investigated leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and dissolved methane (CH4), at forests, grasslands, and croplands across Europe. Biogenic contributions to DIC were estimated by means of its δ13C signature. Leaching of biogenic DIC was 8.3±4.9gm-2yr-1 for forests, 24.1±7.2gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 14.6±4.8gm-2yr-1 for croplands. DOC leaching equalled 3.5±1.3gm-2yr-1 for forests, 5.3±2.0gm-2yr-1 for grasslands, and 4.1±1.3gm-2yr-1 for croplands. The average flux of total biogenic carbon across land use systems was 19.4±4.0gCm-2yr-1. Production of DOC in topsoils was positively related to their C/N ratio and DOC retention in subsoils was inversely related to the ratio of organic carbon to iron plus aluminium (hydr)oxides. Partial pressures of CO2 in soil air and soil pH determined DIC concentrations and fluxes, but soil solutions were often supersaturated with DIC relative to soil air CO2. Leaching losses of biogenic carbon (DOC plus biogenic DIC) from grasslands equalled 5-98% (median: 22%) of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) plus carbon inputs with fertilization minus carbon removal with harvest. Carbon leaching increased the net losses from cropland soils by 24-105% (median: 25%). For the majority of forest sites, leaching hardly affected actual net ecosystem carbon balances because of the small solubility of CO2 in acidic forest soil solutions and large NEE. Leaching of CH4 proved to be insignificant compared with other fluxes of carbon. Overall, our results show that leaching losses are particularly important for the carbon balance of agricultural systems.

KW - Carbon cycle

KW - Carbon sequestration

KW - DIC

KW - Dissolved inorganic carbon

KW - Dissolved organic carbon

KW - DOC

KW - Methane

KW - Net biome productivity

KW - Net ecosystem exchange

U2 - 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02282.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02282.x

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:78650769221

VL - 17

SP - 1167

EP - 1185

JO - Global Change Biology

JF - Global Change Biology

SN - 1354-1013

IS - 2

ER -