Effect of replacing soybean meal with urea or encapsulated nitrate with or without elemental sulfur on nitrogen digestion and methane emissions in feedlot cattle

Lucas Rebelo*, I Cabeza Luna, Juliana Messana, Rafael Araujo, Tiago Simioni, Yury Granja-Salcedo, Elias Vito, Chanhee Lee, Chanhee Lee, Izabelle Teixeira, JA Rooke, Telma Berchielli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the replacement of a true protein source (soybean meal, SBM) with non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources (urea, U; or encapsulated nitrate (NO3-), EN) and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur (S0) to the NPN diets on digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein synthesis (MPS) efficiency, and methane (CH4) emissions in growing beef cattle. Ten ruminally-cannulated steers were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design (five pure-bred Nellore and five cross-bred Angus × Nellore) with 5 periods of 21 d each (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for sample collection). The total mixed ration contained chopped Tifton 85 hay as a forage source in a 50:50 (wt/wt) concentrate to forage ratio (DM basis). The treatments were: SBM as control; U; U plus S0 (US); EN; and EN plus S0 (ENS). Inclusion level of EN was 20 g/kg DM (equivalent to 14.3 g NO3-/kg DM). Urea inclusion (8 g/kg DM) was calculated to supply the same amount of NPN as the EN diets. Elemental sulfur was included at 2.4 g/kg DM. Animals fed NPN diets (U or EN) had lower (P≤0.01) DMI, OMI, and aNDFI compared to animals fed SBM. Animals fed EN consumed less (P=0.006) N than animals fed U-containing diets. Nitrogen excreted in feces and urine was lower (P≤0.05) for animals fed NPN diets compared to SBM, but N digestibility did not differ (P=0.30) between diets. Rumen pH was greater (P<0.001) for EN compared to U diets. Animals fed NPN diets had lower (P=0.03) daily CH4 emissions compared to SBM (76.5 vs. 95 g CH4/d, respectively). Addition of S0 to NPN-containing diets did not alter (P≥0.06) any parameter evaluated. Encapsulated nitrate and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur partially replacing SBM or as an alternative source of NPN to urea in beef cattle diets did not decrease CH4 emissions or adversely affect microbial protein synthesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number114293
JournalAnimal Feed Science and Technology
Volume257
Early online date16 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1 Nov 2019

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feedlots
methane
soybean meal
nonprotein nitrogen
sulfur
urea
digestion
nitrates
cattle
nitrogen
diet
microbial proteins
Nellore
beef cattle
protein synthesis
digestibility
forage
true protein
corn
total mixed rations

Bibliographical note

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Keywords

  • Beef cattle
  • Encapsulated nitrate
  • Methane
  • Microbial protein synthesis
  • Non-protein nitrogen

Cite this

Rebelo, Lucas ; Cabeza Luna, I ; Messana, Juliana ; Araujo, Rafael ; Simioni, Tiago ; Granja-Salcedo, Yury ; Vito, Elias ; Lee, Chanhee ; Lee, Chanhee ; Teixeira, Izabelle ; Rooke, JA ; Berchielli, Telma. / Effect of replacing soybean meal with urea or encapsulated nitrate with or without elemental sulfur on nitrogen digestion and methane emissions in feedlot cattle. In: Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 257.
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keywords = "Beef cattle, Encapsulated nitrate, Methane, Microbial protein synthesis, Non-protein nitrogen",
author = "Lucas Rebelo and {Cabeza Luna}, I and Juliana Messana and Rafael Araujo and Tiago Simioni and Yury Granja-Salcedo and Elias Vito and Chanhee Lee and Chanhee Lee and Izabelle Teixeira and JA Rooke and Telma Berchielli",
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Rebelo, L, Cabeza Luna, I, Messana, J, Araujo, R, Simioni, T, Granja-Salcedo, Y, Vito, E, Lee, C, Lee, C, Teixeira, I, Rooke, JA & Berchielli, T 2019, 'Effect of replacing soybean meal with urea or encapsulated nitrate with or without elemental sulfur on nitrogen digestion and methane emissions in feedlot cattle', Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 257, 114293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2019.114293

Effect of replacing soybean meal with urea or encapsulated nitrate with or without elemental sulfur on nitrogen digestion and methane emissions in feedlot cattle. / Rebelo, Lucas; Cabeza Luna, I; Messana, Juliana ; Araujo, Rafael; Simioni, Tiago; Granja-Salcedo, Yury; Vito, Elias; Lee, Chanhee; Lee, Chanhee; Teixeira, Izabelle; Rooke, JA; Berchielli, Telma.

In: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 257, 114293, 01.11.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of replacing soybean meal with urea or encapsulated nitrate with or without elemental sulfur on nitrogen digestion and methane emissions in feedlot cattle

AU - Rebelo, Lucas

AU - Cabeza Luna, I

AU - Messana, Juliana

AU - Araujo, Rafael

AU - Simioni, Tiago

AU - Granja-Salcedo, Yury

AU - Vito, Elias

AU - Lee, Chanhee

AU - Lee, Chanhee

AU - Teixeira, Izabelle

AU - Rooke, JA

AU - Berchielli, Telma

N1 - © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - The objective of this study was to investigate the replacement of a true protein source (soybean meal, SBM) with non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources (urea, U; or encapsulated nitrate (NO3-), EN) and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur (S0) to the NPN diets on digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein synthesis (MPS) efficiency, and methane (CH4) emissions in growing beef cattle. Ten ruminally-cannulated steers were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design (five pure-bred Nellore and five cross-bred Angus × Nellore) with 5 periods of 21 d each (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for sample collection). The total mixed ration contained chopped Tifton 85 hay as a forage source in a 50:50 (wt/wt) concentrate to forage ratio (DM basis). The treatments were: SBM as control; U; U plus S0 (US); EN; and EN plus S0 (ENS). Inclusion level of EN was 20 g/kg DM (equivalent to 14.3 g NO3-/kg DM). Urea inclusion (8 g/kg DM) was calculated to supply the same amount of NPN as the EN diets. Elemental sulfur was included at 2.4 g/kg DM. Animals fed NPN diets (U or EN) had lower (P≤0.01) DMI, OMI, and aNDFI compared to animals fed SBM. Animals fed EN consumed less (P=0.006) N than animals fed U-containing diets. Nitrogen excreted in feces and urine was lower (P≤0.05) for animals fed NPN diets compared to SBM, but N digestibility did not differ (P=0.30) between diets. Rumen pH was greater (P<0.001) for EN compared to U diets. Animals fed NPN diets had lower (P=0.03) daily CH4 emissions compared to SBM (76.5 vs. 95 g CH4/d, respectively). Addition of S0 to NPN-containing diets did not alter (P≥0.06) any parameter evaluated. Encapsulated nitrate and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur partially replacing SBM or as an alternative source of NPN to urea in beef cattle diets did not decrease CH4 emissions or adversely affect microbial protein synthesis.

AB - The objective of this study was to investigate the replacement of a true protein source (soybean meal, SBM) with non-protein nitrogen (NPN) sources (urea, U; or encapsulated nitrate (NO3-), EN) and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur (S0) to the NPN diets on digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, microbial protein synthesis (MPS) efficiency, and methane (CH4) emissions in growing beef cattle. Ten ruminally-cannulated steers were used in a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design (five pure-bred Nellore and five cross-bred Angus × Nellore) with 5 periods of 21 d each (14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for sample collection). The total mixed ration contained chopped Tifton 85 hay as a forage source in a 50:50 (wt/wt) concentrate to forage ratio (DM basis). The treatments were: SBM as control; U; U plus S0 (US); EN; and EN plus S0 (ENS). Inclusion level of EN was 20 g/kg DM (equivalent to 14.3 g NO3-/kg DM). Urea inclusion (8 g/kg DM) was calculated to supply the same amount of NPN as the EN diets. Elemental sulfur was included at 2.4 g/kg DM. Animals fed NPN diets (U or EN) had lower (P≤0.01) DMI, OMI, and aNDFI compared to animals fed SBM. Animals fed EN consumed less (P=0.006) N than animals fed U-containing diets. Nitrogen excreted in feces and urine was lower (P≤0.05) for animals fed NPN diets compared to SBM, but N digestibility did not differ (P=0.30) between diets. Rumen pH was greater (P<0.001) for EN compared to U diets. Animals fed NPN diets had lower (P=0.03) daily CH4 emissions compared to SBM (76.5 vs. 95 g CH4/d, respectively). Addition of S0 to NPN-containing diets did not alter (P≥0.06) any parameter evaluated. Encapsulated nitrate and corn with or without the addition of elemental sulfur partially replacing SBM or as an alternative source of NPN to urea in beef cattle diets did not decrease CH4 emissions or adversely affect microbial protein synthesis.

KW - Beef cattle

KW - Encapsulated nitrate

KW - Methane

KW - Microbial protein synthesis

KW - Non-protein nitrogen

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