Effects of feed allowance and indispensable amino acid reduction on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs

Stefano Schiavon, Mirco Dalla Bona, Giuseppe Carcò*, Luca Carraro, Lutz Bunger, Luigi Gallo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The hypothesis that pigs placed on diets with reduced indispensable amino acid (AA) content attempts to offset the reduction in the nutrient density with increased feed intake was tested. In the experiment, feeds with a high or a low AA content were administrated to pigs fed ad-libitum or restrictively according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. Ninety-six barrows were housed in 8 pens (12 pigs/pen) equipped with automatic feeders. Within pen, and from 47 body weight (BW) onwards, 6 pigs were fed ad libitum. The others pigs were allowed to consume, as a maximum, the feed amounts indicated by the breeding company feeding plane to optimize the feed efficiency. In early (86–118 kg BW) and late (118–145 kg BW) finishing, the pigs of 4 pens received feeds with high indispensable AA contents (8.1 and 7.5 g lysine/ kg in the two periods, respectively). The other pigs received feeds with reduced indispensable AA contents (lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan) by 9 and 18% in early and late finishing, respectively. Body lipid and protein (Pr) retentions were estimated from BW and back-fat depth measures recorded at the beginning and the end of each period. Nitrogen excretion was estimated as actual intake minus estimated N-retention (Pr/6.25). Pigs were slaughtered at 144 kg BW. Restricted feeding decreased feed intake (-7%), daily gain (-5%), carcass weight (-2.6%) and back-fat depth (-8.0%) but increased gain:feed ratio (+2%). The AA restriction increased feed intake (+5.9%), carcass weight (+4.9%) and intramuscular fat (+17.6%), and reduced carcass weight variation (-36%), with no effects on the feed efficiency and the estimated Pr (142 g/d). N excreted was reduced by feed (-9%) and dietary AA (-15%) restrictions. Irrespectively of the feeding level, the pigs responded to a reduction of the dietary essential AA content by increasing their feed intake.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0195645
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 5 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

carcass characteristics
growth performance
Swine
feed intake
Amino Acids
swine
amino acids
Growth
Body Weight
Fats
carcass weight
body weight
Lysine
backfat
Weights and Measures
Proteins
Essential Amino Acids
finishing
lysine
Threonine

Keywords

  • Swine
  • Diet
  • Fats
  • Lysine
  • Meat
  • Excretion
  • Ham
  • Nutrients

Cite this

Schiavon, Stefano ; Bona, Mirco Dalla ; Carcò, Giuseppe ; Carraro, Luca ; Bunger, Lutz ; Gallo, Luigi. / Effects of feed allowance and indispensable amino acid reduction on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. In: PLoS ONE. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 4.
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abstract = "The hypothesis that pigs placed on diets with reduced indispensable amino acid (AA) content attempts to offset the reduction in the nutrient density with increased feed intake was tested. In the experiment, feeds with a high or a low AA content were administrated to pigs fed ad-libitum or restrictively according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. Ninety-six barrows were housed in 8 pens (12 pigs/pen) equipped with automatic feeders. Within pen, and from 47 body weight (BW) onwards, 6 pigs were fed ad libitum. The others pigs were allowed to consume, as a maximum, the feed amounts indicated by the breeding company feeding plane to optimize the feed efficiency. In early (86–118 kg BW) and late (118–145 kg BW) finishing, the pigs of 4 pens received feeds with high indispensable AA contents (8.1 and 7.5 g lysine/ kg in the two periods, respectively). The other pigs received feeds with reduced indispensable AA contents (lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan) by 9 and 18{\%} in early and late finishing, respectively. Body lipid and protein (Pr) retentions were estimated from BW and back-fat depth measures recorded at the beginning and the end of each period. Nitrogen excretion was estimated as actual intake minus estimated N-retention (Pr/6.25). Pigs were slaughtered at 144 kg BW. Restricted feeding decreased feed intake (-7{\%}), daily gain (-5{\%}), carcass weight (-2.6{\%}) and back-fat depth (-8.0{\%}) but increased gain:feed ratio (+2{\%}). The AA restriction increased feed intake (+5.9{\%}), carcass weight (+4.9{\%}) and intramuscular fat (+17.6{\%}), and reduced carcass weight variation (-36{\%}), with no effects on the feed efficiency and the estimated Pr (142 g/d). N excreted was reduced by feed (-9{\%}) and dietary AA (-15{\%}) restrictions. Irrespectively of the feeding level, the pigs responded to a reduction of the dietary essential AA content by increasing their feed intake.",
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Effects of feed allowance and indispensable amino acid reduction on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. / Schiavon, Stefano; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Carcò, Giuseppe; Carraro, Luca; Bunger, Lutz; Gallo, Luigi.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 4, e0195645, 05.04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of feed allowance and indispensable amino acid reduction on feed intake, growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs

AU - Schiavon, Stefano

AU - Bona, Mirco Dalla

AU - Carcò, Giuseppe

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AU - Bunger, Lutz

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AB - The hypothesis that pigs placed on diets with reduced indispensable amino acid (AA) content attempts to offset the reduction in the nutrient density with increased feed intake was tested. In the experiment, feeds with a high or a low AA content were administrated to pigs fed ad-libitum or restrictively according to a 2 × 2 factorial design. Ninety-six barrows were housed in 8 pens (12 pigs/pen) equipped with automatic feeders. Within pen, and from 47 body weight (BW) onwards, 6 pigs were fed ad libitum. The others pigs were allowed to consume, as a maximum, the feed amounts indicated by the breeding company feeding plane to optimize the feed efficiency. In early (86–118 kg BW) and late (118–145 kg BW) finishing, the pigs of 4 pens received feeds with high indispensable AA contents (8.1 and 7.5 g lysine/ kg in the two periods, respectively). The other pigs received feeds with reduced indispensable AA contents (lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan) by 9 and 18% in early and late finishing, respectively. Body lipid and protein (Pr) retentions were estimated from BW and back-fat depth measures recorded at the beginning and the end of each period. Nitrogen excretion was estimated as actual intake minus estimated N-retention (Pr/6.25). Pigs were slaughtered at 144 kg BW. Restricted feeding decreased feed intake (-7%), daily gain (-5%), carcass weight (-2.6%) and back-fat depth (-8.0%) but increased gain:feed ratio (+2%). The AA restriction increased feed intake (+5.9%), carcass weight (+4.9%) and intramuscular fat (+17.6%), and reduced carcass weight variation (-36%), with no effects on the feed efficiency and the estimated Pr (142 g/d). N excreted was reduced by feed (-9%) and dietary AA (-15%) restrictions. Irrespectively of the feeding level, the pigs responded to a reduction of the dietary essential AA content by increasing their feed intake.

KW - Swine

KW - Diet

KW - Fats

KW - Lysine

KW - Meat

KW - Excretion

KW - Ham

KW - Nutrients

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