Effects of Yucca schidigera extract on fermentation and degradation of steroidal saponins in the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC)

Y. Wang, T.A. McAllister, C.J. Newbold, L.M. Rode, P.R. Cheeke, K.-J. Cheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 940 ml fermentation vessels was used to study the effects of the steroidal saponins in Yucca schidigera extract (YE) on ruminal microbial activity and saponin degradation. The YE contained approximately 4.4% (w/w) saponin, as smilagenin equivalents, and was included at 0 (control) or 0.5 mg ml−1 (n=4) in the McDougall's buffer infused continuously into the vessels (dilution rate=0.75 day−1). Each vessel received 5 g chopped alfalfa hay and 5 g concentrate (as-fed basis) daily for 22 days. Ammonia concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in effluent from vessels receiving YE than from controls for the first half of the study, but did not differ thereafter. Total amounts of VFA in effluent were not affected (P>0.05) by YE, but molar proportions of iso-butyric and iso-valeric acids were lower (P<0.05) in the YE vessels than in the controls in the first half of the experiment. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter disappearance (DMD) from hay or from concentrate, nor did it affect total gas or methane production, or bacterial numbers (total or cellulolytic populations) in homogenates prepared from fermenter vessel liquid and feed particles. Protozoal numbers in the homogenates were substantially reduced (P<0.01) by YE (at 0.5 mg ml−1), protease activity was increased (P<0.05), deaminase activity and activity against Ala2 were unaffected (P>0.05) and activity against Ala5 was reduced by 25% (P>0.05). When the homogenates from control and YE-supplemented (0.5 mg ml−1) vessels were used to inoculate roll tubes containing 0 or 5 mg ml−1 of YE, fewer colonies developed (P<0.01) in roll tubes containing YE than in those without YE, irrespective of the source of inoculum. Homogenates were also assayed for saponin degradation and for protease, peptidase and deaminase activities. Inoculum from the vessels receiving YE degraded saponin slightly during a 2 h incubation. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 altered proteolytic activity and reduced protozoal numbers, but did not affect DMD or bacterial activity, and did not induce resistance to YE at a concentration of 5 mg ml−1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-153
Number of pages11
JournalAnimal Feed Science and Technology
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 1998

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Yucca schidigera
steroid saponins
rumen
fermentation
degradation
extracts
saponins
methodology
microbial activity
inoculum
concentrates
valeric acid
Yucca
gas production (biological)
peptidases
fermenters
alfalfa hay
methane production
hay
ammonia

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Cited By :108

Export Date: 18 May 2019

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title = "Effects of Yucca schidigera extract on fermentation and degradation of steroidal saponins in the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC)",
abstract = "A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 940 ml fermentation vessels was used to study the effects of the steroidal saponins in Yucca schidigera extract (YE) on ruminal microbial activity and saponin degradation. The YE contained approximately 4.4{\%} (w/w) saponin, as smilagenin equivalents, and was included at 0 (control) or 0.5 mg ml−1 (n=4) in the McDougall's buffer infused continuously into the vessels (dilution rate=0.75 day−1). Each vessel received 5 g chopped alfalfa hay and 5 g concentrate (as-fed basis) daily for 22 days. Ammonia concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in effluent from vessels receiving YE than from controls for the first half of the study, but did not differ thereafter. Total amounts of VFA in effluent were not affected (P>0.05) by YE, but molar proportions of iso-butyric and iso-valeric acids were lower (P<0.05) in the YE vessels than in the controls in the first half of the experiment. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter disappearance (DMD) from hay or from concentrate, nor did it affect total gas or methane production, or bacterial numbers (total or cellulolytic populations) in homogenates prepared from fermenter vessel liquid and feed particles. Protozoal numbers in the homogenates were substantially reduced (P<0.01) by YE (at 0.5 mg ml−1), protease activity was increased (P<0.05), deaminase activity and activity against Ala2 were unaffected (P>0.05) and activity against Ala5 was reduced by 25{\%} (P>0.05). When the homogenates from control and YE-supplemented (0.5 mg ml−1) vessels were used to inoculate roll tubes containing 0 or 5 mg ml−1 of YE, fewer colonies developed (P<0.01) in roll tubes containing YE than in those without YE, irrespective of the source of inoculum. Homogenates were also assayed for saponin degradation and for protease, peptidase and deaminase activities. Inoculum from the vessels receiving YE degraded saponin slightly during a 2 h incubation. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 altered proteolytic activity and reduced protozoal numbers, but did not affect DMD or bacterial activity, and did not induce resistance to YE at a concentration of 5 mg ml−1.",
author = "Y. Wang and T.A. McAllister and C.J. Newbold and L.M. Rode and P.R. Cheeke and K.-J. Cheng",
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Effects of Yucca schidigera extract on fermentation and degradation of steroidal saponins in the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). / Wang, Y.; McAllister, T.A.; Newbold, C.J.; Rode, L.M.; Cheeke, P.R.; Cheng, K.-J.

In: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 74, No. 2, 1998, p. 143-153.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of Yucca schidigera extract on fermentation and degradation of steroidal saponins in the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC)

AU - Wang, Y.

AU - McAllister, T.A.

AU - Newbold, C.J.

AU - Rode, L.M.

AU - Cheeke, P.R.

AU - Cheng, K.-J.

N1 - Cited By :108 Export Date: 18 May 2019

PY - 1998

Y1 - 1998

N2 - A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 940 ml fermentation vessels was used to study the effects of the steroidal saponins in Yucca schidigera extract (YE) on ruminal microbial activity and saponin degradation. The YE contained approximately 4.4% (w/w) saponin, as smilagenin equivalents, and was included at 0 (control) or 0.5 mg ml−1 (n=4) in the McDougall's buffer infused continuously into the vessels (dilution rate=0.75 day−1). Each vessel received 5 g chopped alfalfa hay and 5 g concentrate (as-fed basis) daily for 22 days. Ammonia concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in effluent from vessels receiving YE than from controls for the first half of the study, but did not differ thereafter. Total amounts of VFA in effluent were not affected (P>0.05) by YE, but molar proportions of iso-butyric and iso-valeric acids were lower (P<0.05) in the YE vessels than in the controls in the first half of the experiment. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter disappearance (DMD) from hay or from concentrate, nor did it affect total gas or methane production, or bacterial numbers (total or cellulolytic populations) in homogenates prepared from fermenter vessel liquid and feed particles. Protozoal numbers in the homogenates were substantially reduced (P<0.01) by YE (at 0.5 mg ml−1), protease activity was increased (P<0.05), deaminase activity and activity against Ala2 were unaffected (P>0.05) and activity against Ala5 was reduced by 25% (P>0.05). When the homogenates from control and YE-supplemented (0.5 mg ml−1) vessels were used to inoculate roll tubes containing 0 or 5 mg ml−1 of YE, fewer colonies developed (P<0.01) in roll tubes containing YE than in those without YE, irrespective of the source of inoculum. Homogenates were also assayed for saponin degradation and for protease, peptidase and deaminase activities. Inoculum from the vessels receiving YE degraded saponin slightly during a 2 h incubation. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 altered proteolytic activity and reduced protozoal numbers, but did not affect DMD or bacterial activity, and did not induce resistance to YE at a concentration of 5 mg ml−1.

AB - A rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) apparatus with eight 940 ml fermentation vessels was used to study the effects of the steroidal saponins in Yucca schidigera extract (YE) on ruminal microbial activity and saponin degradation. The YE contained approximately 4.4% (w/w) saponin, as smilagenin equivalents, and was included at 0 (control) or 0.5 mg ml−1 (n=4) in the McDougall's buffer infused continuously into the vessels (dilution rate=0.75 day−1). Each vessel received 5 g chopped alfalfa hay and 5 g concentrate (as-fed basis) daily for 22 days. Ammonia concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in effluent from vessels receiving YE than from controls for the first half of the study, but did not differ thereafter. Total amounts of VFA in effluent were not affected (P>0.05) by YE, but molar proportions of iso-butyric and iso-valeric acids were lower (P<0.05) in the YE vessels than in the controls in the first half of the experiment. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 did not affect (P>0.05) dry matter disappearance (DMD) from hay or from concentrate, nor did it affect total gas or methane production, or bacterial numbers (total or cellulolytic populations) in homogenates prepared from fermenter vessel liquid and feed particles. Protozoal numbers in the homogenates were substantially reduced (P<0.01) by YE (at 0.5 mg ml−1), protease activity was increased (P<0.05), deaminase activity and activity against Ala2 were unaffected (P>0.05) and activity against Ala5 was reduced by 25% (P>0.05). When the homogenates from control and YE-supplemented (0.5 mg ml−1) vessels were used to inoculate roll tubes containing 0 or 5 mg ml−1 of YE, fewer colonies developed (P<0.01) in roll tubes containing YE than in those without YE, irrespective of the source of inoculum. Homogenates were also assayed for saponin degradation and for protease, peptidase and deaminase activities. Inoculum from the vessels receiving YE degraded saponin slightly during a 2 h incubation. Yucca extract at 0.5 mg ml−1 altered proteolytic activity and reduced protozoal numbers, but did not affect DMD or bacterial activity, and did not induce resistance to YE at a concentration of 5 mg ml−1.

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