Gill disease of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the marine environment has emerged as a significant problem for the salmon aquaculture industry. Different types of marine salmon gill disease reported include amoebic gill disease (AGD), parasitic gill disease, viral gill disease, bacterial gill disease, zooplankton (cnidarian nematocyst)-associated gill disease, harmful algal gill disease and chemical/toxin-associated gill disease. The term ‘multifactorial gill disease’ is used when multiple distinguishable types of disease (as opposed to an obvious single primary type) are present. When gill disease is non-specific, it is referred to as ‘complex gill disease’ (CGD) or ‘complex gill disorder’. These two terms are often used interchangeably and are overlapping. The significance of many infectious and non-infectious agents that may be associated with CGD is often unclear. In this review, we summarise aspects of the different types of gill disease that are relevant to the epidemiology of gill disease and of CGD in particular. We also tabulate simultaneously occurring putative pathogens to explore the multifactorial nature of gill disease.
- Atlantic salmon
- complex gill disease (CGD)
- marine gill disease
- proliferative gill disease (PGD)
- proliferative gill inflammation (PGI)