Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage- based diets for lactating dairy cows

LPF Carvalho, ARJ Cabrita, RJ Dewhurst, TEJ Vicente, ZMC Lopes, AJM Fonseca*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no treatment effects in Experiment 2, except for milk protein content, which was decreased by CDG. Plasma Lys concentration tended to be affected by SPKM and CDG inclusions. Plasma concentrations of 3-methylhistidine and Leu seemed to be related to body protein degradation/synthesis. The feeding of SPKM up to 15% in the diet decreased feed costs without detrimental effects on productive responses and tended to increase milk protein content. The inclusion of CDG in diets based on corn silage and corn byproducts might decrease milk protein content due to an unbalanced supply of AA, particularly Lys.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2705-2715
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume89
Issue number7
Publication statusPrint publication - Jul 2006

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Carvalho, LPF., Cabrita, ARJ., Dewhurst, RJ., Vicente, TEJ., Lopes, ZMC., & Fonseca, AJM. (2006). Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage- based diets for lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(7), 2705-2715.