Exploring the Mechanisms of Multiple Insecticide Resistance in a Highly Plasmodium-Infected Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Sensu Stricto from Sahel of Northern Nigeria

Sulaiman S Ibrahim, Muhammad M Mukhtar, Helen Irving, Jacob M Riveron, Amen N Fadel, Williams Tchapga, Jack Hearn, Abdullahi Muhammad, Faruk Sarkinfada, Charles S Wondji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Nigerian Government is scaling up the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control, but the lack of surveillance data, especially in the Sudan/Sahel region of the country, may hinder targeting priority populations. Here, the vectorial role and insecticide resistance profile of a population of a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus sensu stricto from Sahel of Nigeria was characterised. An. funestus s.s. was the only vector found, with a high human blood index (100%) and a biting rate of 5.3/person/night. High Plasmodium falciparum infection was discovered (sporozoite rate = 54.55%). The population is resistant to permethrin (mortality = 48.30%, LT 50 = 65.76 min), deltamethrin, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and bendiocarb, with mortalities of 29.44%, 56.34% and 54.05%, respectively. Cone-bioassays established loss of efficacy of the pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs); but 100% recovery of susceptibility was obtained for piperonylbutoxide (PBO)-containing PermaNet®3.0. Synergist bioassays with PBO and diethyl maleate recovered susceptibility, implicating CYP450s (permethrin mortality = 78.73%, χ 2 = 22.33, P < 0.0001) and GSTs (DDT mortality = 81.44%, χ 2 = 19.12, P < 0.0001). A high frequency of 119F GSTe2 mutation (0.84) was observed (OR = 16, χ 2 = 3.40, P = 0.05), suggesting the preeminent role of metabolic resistance. These findings highlight challenges associated with deployment of LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Nigeria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number454
JournalGenes
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 22 Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Animals
  • Anopheles/drug effects
  • Female
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Insecticides/pharmacology
  • Malaria/epidemiology
  • Mosquito Vectors/drug effects
  • Nigeria/epidemiology
  • Plasmodium/isolation & purification
  • 119F mutation
  • Anopheles funestus
  • Malaria
  • Metabolic
  • Resistance
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • GSTe2

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