Petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals are the two major soil contaminants that are released into the environment in the forms of industrial effluents. These contaminants exert serious impacts on human health and the sustainability of the environment. In this context, remediation of these pollutants via a biological approach can be effective, low-cost, and eco-friendly approach. The implementation of microorganisms and metagenomics are regarded as the advanced solution for remediating such pollutants. Further, microbiomes can overcome this issue via adopting specific structural, functional and metabolic pathways involved in the microbial community to degrade these pollutants. Genomic sequencing and library can effectively channelize the degradation of these pollutants via microbiomes. Nevertheless, more advanced technology and reliable strategies are required to develop. The present review provides insights into the role of microbiomes to effectively remediate/degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in contaminated soil. The possible degradation mechanisms of these pollutants have also been discussed in detail along with their existing limitations. Finally, prospects of the bioremediation strategies using microbiomes are discussed.
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- Heavy metals contaminants
- Petroleum hydrocarbons