Genetic insights into crossbred dairy cattle of Pakistan: exploring allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium, and effective population size at a genome-wide scale

Fakhar Un Nisa, Haiba Kaul, Muhammad Asif, Imran Amin, Raphael Mrode, Shahid Mansoor, Zahid Mukhtar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) affects genomic studies accuracy. High-density genotyping platforms identify SNPs across animal genomes, increasing LD evaluation resolution for accurate analysis. This study aimed to evaluate the decay and magnitude of LD in a cohort of 81 crossbred dairy cattle using the GGP_HDv3_C Bead Chip. After quality control, 116,710 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) across 2520.241 Mb of autosomes were retained. LD extent was assessed between autosomal SNPs within a 10 Mb range using the r 2 statistics. LD value declined as inter-marker distance increased. The average r 2 value was 0.24 for SNP pairs < 10 kb apart, decreasing to 0.13 for 50–100 kb distances. Minor allele frequency (MAF) and sample size significantly impact LD. Lower MAF thresholds result in smaller r 2 values, while higher thresholds show increased r 2 values. Additionally, smaller sample sizes exhibit higher average r 2 values, especially for larger physical distance intervals (> 50 kb) between SNP pairs. Effective population size and inbreeding coefficient were 150 and 0.028 for the present generation, indicating a decrease in genetic diversity over time. These findings imply that the utilization of high-density SNP panels and customized/breed-specific SNP panels represent a highly favorable approach for conducting genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and implementing genomic selection (GS) in the Bos indicus cattle breeds, whose genomes are still largely unexplored. Furthermore, it is imperative to devise a meticulous breeding strategy tailored to each herd, aiming to enhance desired traits while simultaneously preserving genetic diversity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)602-614
Number of pages13
JournalMammalian Genome
Volume34
Issue number4
Early online date7 Oct 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Dec 2023

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