Root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus thornei) causes extensive yield losses in wheat worldwide and thus pose serious threat to global food security. Reliance on fumigants (such as methyl bromide) and nematicides for crop protection has been discouraged due to environmental concerns. Hence, alternative environment friendly control measures like finding and deployment of resistance genes against Pratylenchus thornei are of significant importance. In the present study, genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using single-locus and multi-locus methods. In total, 143 wheat genotypes collected from pan-Indian wheat cultivation states were used for nematode screening. Genotypic data consisted of > 7K SNPs with known genetic positions on the high-density consensus map was used for association analysis. Principal component analysis indicated the existence of sub-populations with no major structuring of populations due to the origin. Altogether, 25 significant marker trait associations were detected with - log10 (p value) > 4.0. Three large linkage disequilibrium blocks and the corresponding haplotypes were found to be associated with significant SNPs. In total, 37 candidate genes with nine genes having a putative role in disease resistance (F-box-like domain superfamily, Leucine-rich repeat, cysteine-containing subtype, Cytochrome P450 superfamily, Zinc finger C2H2-type, RING/FYVE/PHD-type, etc.) were identified. Genomic selection was conducted to investigate how well one could predict the phenotype of the nematode count without performing the screening experiments. Prediction value of r = 0.40 to 0.44 was observed when 56 to 70% of the population was used as a training set. This is the first report where GWAS has been conducted to find resistance against root lesion nematode (P. thornei) in Indian wheat germplasm.