Sustainable polymers play an indispensable role in the emergence of green materials, and the 21st century is an era of sustainable polymeric materials. Sustainable polymer-based materials have attracted considerable interest because of the energy crisis and ecological concerns as well as the potential to substitute certain petroleum-derived materials. The use of biorenewable resources is becoming increasingly important and is related to natural bioresources, agricultural production, and new developments in the bio-based materials. This book seeks to address the fundamental understanding of the structure and chemistry of sustainable polymers. It covers the fundamentals of sustainable polymer and presents guidelines in a logical and clear manner for students and researchers to follow. It is a milestone that will help accelerate the progress and advancement in the field of sustainable polymers. The text explores the structure and chemistry of various sustainable polymers, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, chitosan, starch, guar gum, pectin, and protein, for possible development of green sustainable materials. Each chapter is authored by highly accomplished experts in the field of sustainable polymers and discusses in detail the chemistry and structure of sustainable polymers procured from different natural resources.