Around 2200 miRNA (microRNA) genes were found in the human genome. miRNAs are arranged in clusters within the genome and share the same transcriptional regulatory units. It has been revealed that approximately 50% of miRNAs elucidated in the genome are transcribed from non-protein-coding genes, and the leftover miRNAs are present in the introns of coding sequences. We are now approaching a stage in which miRNA diagnostics and therapies can be established confidently, and several commercial efforts are underway to carry these innovations from the bench to the clinic. MiRNAs control many of the significant cellular activities such as production, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. Particularly in the immune system, miRNAs have emerged as a crucial biological component during diseased state and homeostasis. miRNAs have been found to regulate inflammatory responses and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, each miRNA targets multiple genes simultaneously, making miRNAs promising tools as diagnostic biomarkers and as remedial targets. Still, one of the major obstacles in miRNA-based approaches is the achievement of specific and efficient systemic delivery of miRNAs. To overcome these challenges, nanoformulations have been synthesized to protect miRNAs from degradation and enhance cellular uptake. The current review deals with the miRNA-mediated regulation of the recruitment and activation of immune cells, especially in the tumor microenvironment, viral infection, inflammation, and autoimmunity. The nano-based miRNA delivery modes are also discussed here, especially in the context of immune modulation.
- miRNA delivery
- Viral infection