Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is a globally important cereal whose production is severely constrained by downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.). In this study, immunity eliciting properties of 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA), Cell Wall Glucan (CWG), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Glycinebetaine (GB) was deciphered through enzymatic and protein studies based on elicitor treatment activated defense mechanisms. Glycinebetaine, LPS, CWS and DCA elicited enzyme activities and gene expression of the defense enzymes, such as β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), lipoxygenase (LOX) and defense protein hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). However, the speed and the extent of elicitation differed. High levels of enzyme activities and gene expression in elicitor-treated P. glaucum positively correlated with the increased downy mildew resistance. A very rapid and large changes in elicitor-treated seedlings, in contrast to the delayed, smaller changes in the untreated susceptible control seedlings suggests that the rate and magnitude of defense gene expression are important for effective manifestation of defense against pathogen. As compared to other elicitors and control, GB promoted increase in enzyme activities and gene expression, implicating that GB is a promising elicitor of downy mildew resistance in P. glaucum.