Indium sulfide-based photocatalysts for hydrogen production and water cleaning: a review

Vatika Soni, Pankaj Raizada*, Abhinandan Kumar, Vasudha Hasija, Sonal Singal, Pardeep Singh, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Van Huy Nguyen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)


Solar illumination is a promising source of primary energy to reduce global warming and to clean polluted waters, thus fostering research of the design of efficient photocatalysts for hydrogen production by water splitting and for contaminant degradation. In particular, photocatalysis by indium sulfide (In2S3) is drawing attention due to its suitable narrow bandgap of 2.0–2.3 eV for visible light harnessing, yet large-scale application of unmodified In2S3 is limited. Here we review the photocatalyst criteria for water splitting, the synthesis and morphological manipulations of In2S3, the synthesis of heterojunctions by coupling semiconductors to increase performance, and doping In2S3. In2S3-based heterojunctions, i.e., traditional type II, all-solid-state, and direct Z-scheme photocatalytic systems show benefits such as larger charge separation, broad solar spectrum absorption, and amended conduction band and valence band edge potentials for maximum pollutant removal and H2 production. The effect of dopant incorporation on electronic modulations of In2S3 is explained by the density functional theory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1065-1095
Number of pages31
JournalEnvironmental Chemistry Letters
Early online date4 Jan 2021
Publication statusPrint publication - Apr 2021


  • Defect formation
  • H production
  • InS photocatalyst
  • Morphological tuning
  • Pollutant degradation
  • Vacancy generation


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