Harvested banana ripening is a complex physiological and biochemical process, and there are existing differences in the regulation of ripening between the pulp and peel. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms governing peel ripening are still not well understood. In this study, we performed a combination of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics analysis on peel during banana fruit ripening. It was found that 5784 genes, 94 proteins, and 133 metabolites were differentially expressed or accumulated in peel during banana ripening. Those genes and proteins were linked to ripening-related processes, including transcriptional regulation, hormone signaling, cell wall modification, aroma synthesis, protein modification, and energy metabolism. The differentially expressed transcriptional factors were mainly ethylene response factor (ERF) and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family members.Moreover, a great number of auxin signaling-related genes were up-regulated, and exogenous 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) treatment accelerated banana fruit ripening and up-regulated the expression of many ripening-related genes, suggesting that auxin participates in the regulation of banana peel ripening. In addition, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family members play an important role in peel softening. Both heat shock proteins (Hsps) mediated-protein modification, and ubiqutin-protesome system-mediated protein degradation was involved in peel ripening. Furthermore, anaerobic respiration might predominate in energy metabolism in peel during banana ripening. Taken together, our study highlights a better understanding of the mechanism underlying banana peel ripening and provides a new clue for further dissection of specific gene functions.
- Fruit ripening