Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

A. Hensen*, E. Nemitz, M. J. Flynn, A. Blatter, S. K. Jones, L. L. Sorensen, B. Hensen, S. C. Pryor, B. Jensen, R. P. Otjes, J. Cobussen, B. Loubet, J. W. Erisman, M. W. Gallagher, A. Neftel, M. A. Sutton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The exchange of Ammonia (NH3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before and after both cutting and fertilizing and provided a wide range of fluxes -60-3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20% to 70% lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few %. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that reference sampling periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, significant improvements in sampling precision are essential to allow robust determination of flux divergence in future studies. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the adsorptive and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2575-2588
Number of pages14
JournalBiogeosciences
Volume6
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - 16 Nov 2009
Externally publishedYes

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eddy
ammonia
aerodynamics
methodology
sampling
eddy covariance
advection
divergence
comparison
grasslands
sampling bias
experiment
grassland
testing
method
atmosphere

Cite this

Hensen, A., Nemitz, E., Flynn, M. J., Blatter, A., Jones, S. K., Sorensen, L. L., ... Sutton, M. A. (2009). Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique. Biogeosciences, 6(11), 2575-2588. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-2575-2009
Hensen, A. ; Nemitz, E. ; Flynn, M. J. ; Blatter, A. ; Jones, S. K. ; Sorensen, L. L. ; Hensen, B. ; Pryor, S. C. ; Jensen, B. ; Otjes, R. P. ; Cobussen, J. ; Loubet, B. ; Erisman, J. W. ; Gallagher, M. W. ; Neftel, A. ; Sutton, M. A. / Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique. In: Biogeosciences. 2009 ; Vol. 6, No. 11. pp. 2575-2588.
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abstract = "The exchange of Ammonia (NH3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before and after both cutting and fertilizing and provided a wide range of fluxes -60-3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20{\%} to 70{\%} lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few {\%}. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that reference sampling periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, significant improvements in sampling precision are essential to allow robust determination of flux divergence in future studies. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the adsorptive and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.",
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Hensen, A, Nemitz, E, Flynn, MJ, Blatter, A, Jones, SK, Sorensen, LL, Hensen, B, Pryor, SC, Jensen, B, Otjes, RP, Cobussen, J, Loubet, B, Erisman, JW, Gallagher, MW, Neftel, A & Sutton, MA 2009, 'Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique', Biogeosciences, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 2575-2588. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-2575-2009

Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique. / Hensen, A.; Nemitz, E.; Flynn, M. J.; Blatter, A.; Jones, S. K.; Sorensen, L. L.; Hensen, B.; Pryor, S. C.; Jensen, B.; Otjes, R. P.; Cobussen, J.; Loubet, B.; Erisman, J. W.; Gallagher, M. W.; Neftel, A.; Sutton, M. A.

In: Biogeosciences, Vol. 6, No. 11, 16.11.2009, p. 2575-2588.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Inter-comparison of ammonia fluxes obtained using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique

AU - Hensen, A.

AU - Nemitz, E.

AU - Flynn, M. J.

AU - Blatter, A.

AU - Jones, S. K.

AU - Sorensen, L. L.

AU - Hensen, B.

AU - Pryor, S. C.

AU - Jensen, B.

AU - Otjes, R. P.

AU - Cobussen, J.

AU - Loubet, B.

AU - Erisman, J. W.

AU - Gallagher, M. W.

AU - Neftel, A.

AU - Sutton, M. A.

PY - 2009/11/16

Y1 - 2009/11/16

N2 - The exchange of Ammonia (NH3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before and after both cutting and fertilizing and provided a wide range of fluxes -60-3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20% to 70% lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few %. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that reference sampling periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, significant improvements in sampling precision are essential to allow robust determination of flux divergence in future studies. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the adsorptive and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.

AB - The exchange of Ammonia (NH3) between grassland and the atmosphere was determined using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) measurements. The use of REA is of special interest for NH3, since the determination of fluxes at one height permits multiple systems to be deployed to quantify vertical flux divergence (either due to effects of chemical production or advection). During the Braunschweig integrated experiment four different continuous-sampling REA systems were operated during a period of about 10 days and were compared against a reference provided by independent application of the Aerodynamic Gradient Method (AGM). The experiment covered episodes before and after both cutting and fertilizing and provided a wide range of fluxes -60-3600 ng NH3 m-2 s-1 for testing the REA systems. The REA systems showed moderate to good correlation with the AGM estimates, with r2 values for the linear regressions between 0.3 and 0.82. For the period immediately after fertilization, the REA systems showed average fluxes 20% to 70% lower than the reference. At periods with low fluxes REA and AGM can agree within a few %. Overall, the results show that the continuous REA technique can now be used to measure NH3 surface exchange fluxes. While REA requires greater analytical precision in NH3 measurement than the AGM, a key advantage of REA is that reference sampling periods can be introduced to remove bias between sampling inlets. However, while the data here indicate differences consistent with advection effects, significant improvements in sampling precision are essential to allow robust determination of flux divergence in future studies. Wet chemical techniques will be developed further since they use the adsorptive and reactive properties of NH3 that impedes development of cheaper optical systems.

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DO - 10.5194/bg-6-2575-2009

M3 - Article

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EP - 2588

JO - Biogeosciences

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SN - 1726-4170

IS - 11

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