Research progress on sustainable and renewable biofuel has gained motion over the years, not just due to the rapid reduction of dwindling fossil fuel supplies but also due to environmental and potential energy security issues as well. Intense interest in microalgae (photosynthetic microbes) as a promising feedstock for third-generation biofuels has grown over recent years. Fuels derived from algae are now considered sustainable biofuels that are promising, renewable, and clean. Therefore, selecting the robust species of microalgae with substantial features for quality biodiesel production is the first step in the way of biofuel production. A contemporary investigation is more focused on several strategies and techniques to achieve higher biomass and triglycerides in microalgae. The improvement in lipid enhancement in microalgae species by genetic manipulation approaches, such as metabolic or genetic alteration, and the use of nanotechnology are the most recent ways of improving the production of biomass and lipids. Hence, the current review collects up-to-date approaches for microalgae lipid increase and biodiesel generation. The strategies for high biomass and high lipid yield are discussed. Additionally, various pretreatment procedures that may aid in lipid harvesting efficiency and improve lipid recovery rate are described.
- genetic modification
- pretreatment methods