Management of chronic hepatitis B infection: current treatment guidelines, challenges, and new developments

Ceen-Ming Tang, Tung On Yau, Jun Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

117 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a global public health problem, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. The clinical spectrum is wide, ranging from a subclinical inactive carrier state, to progressive chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, complications of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related chronic liver disease may be reduced by viral suppression. Current international guidelines recommend first-line treatment of CHB infection with pegylated interferon, entecavir, or tenofovir, but the optimal treatment for an individual patient is controversial. The indications for treatment are contentious, and increasing evidence suggests that HBV genotyping, as well as serial on-treatment measurements of hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV DNA kinetics should be used to predict antiviral treatment response. The likelihood of achieving a sustained virological response is also increased by extending treatment duration, and using combination therapy. Hence the paradigm for treatment of CHB is constantly evolving. This article summarizes the different indications for treatment, and systematically reviews the evidence for the efficacy of various antiviral agents. It further discusses the shortcomings of current guidelines, use of rescue therapy in drug-resistant strains of HBV, and highlights the promising clinical trials for emerging therapies in the pipeline. This concise overview presents an updated practical approach to guide the clinical management of CHB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6262-78
Number of pages17
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number20
Publication statusPrint publication - 28 May 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Adenine/analogs & derivatives
  • Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
  • DNA, Viral/blood
  • Disease Management
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Drug Resistance, Viral
  • Genotype
  • Guanine/analogs & derivatives
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Interferons/therapeutic use
  • Organophosphonates/therapeutic use
  • Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Tenofovir
  • Viral Load


Dive into the research topics of 'Management of chronic hepatitis B infection: current treatment guidelines, challenges, and new developments'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this