Microbial inoculation in rice regulates antioxidative reactions and defense related genes to mitigate drought stress

Dhananjaya P. Singh*, Vivek Singh, Vijai K. Gupta, Renu Shukla, Ratna Prabha, Birinchi K. Sarma, Jai Singh Patel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)


Microbial inoculation in drought challenged rice triggered multipronged steps at enzymatic, non-enzymatic and gene expression level. These multifarious modulations in plants were related to stress tolerance mechanisms. Drought suppressed growth of rice plants but inoculation with Trichoderma, Pseudomonas and their combination minimized the impact of watering regime. Induced PAL gene expression and enzyme activity due to microbial inoculation led to increased accumulation of polyphenolics in plants. Enhanced antioxidant concentration of polyphenolics from microbe inoculated and drought challenged plants showed substantially high values of DPPH, ABTS, Fe-ion reducing power and Fe-ion chelation activity, which established the role of polyphenolic extract as free radical scavengers. Activation of superoxide dismutase that catalyzes superoxide (O2 ) and leads to the accumulation of H2O2 was linked with the hypersensitive cell death response in leaves. Microbial inoculation in plants enhanced activity of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzymes. This has further contributed in reducing ROS burden in plants. Genes of key metabolic pathways including phenylpropanoid (PAL), superoxide dismutation (SODs), H2O2 peroxidation (APX, PO) and oxidative defense response (CAT) were over-expressed due to microbial inoculation. Enhanced expression of OSPiP linked to less-water permeability, drought-adaptation gene DHN and dehydration related stress inducible DREB gene in rice inoculated with microbial inoculants after drought challenge was also reported. The impact of Pseudomonas on gene expression was consistently remained the most prominent. These findings suggested that microbial inoculation directly caused over-expression of genes linked with defense processes in plants challenged with drought stress. Enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant reactions that helped in minimizing antioxidative load, were the repercussions of enhanced gene expression in microbe inoculated plants. These mechanisms contributed strongly towards stress mitigation. The study demonstrated that microbial inoculants were successful in improving intrinsic biochemical and molecular capabilities of rice plants under stress. Results encouraged us to advocate that the practice of growing plants with microbial inoculants may find strategic place in raising crops under abiotic stressed environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4818
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Early online date16 Mar 2020
Publication statusFirst published - 16 Mar 2020
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Microbial inoculation in rice regulates antioxidative reactions and defense related genes to mitigate drought stress'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this