Microbial meat: A sustainable vegan protein source produced from agri-waste to feed the world

Samara Cardoso Alves, Erick Díaz-Ruiz, Bruna Lisboa, Minaxi Sharma, Solange I. Mussatto, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Deepak M. Kalaskar*, Vijai Kumar Gupta*, Anuj K. Chandel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


In the modern world, animal and plant protein may not meet the sustainability criteria due to their high need for arable land and potable water consumption, among other practices. Considering the growing population and food shortage, finding alternative protein sources for human consumption is an urgent issue that needs to be solved, especially in developing countries. In this context, microbial bioconversion of valuable materials in nutritious microbial cells represent a sustainable alternative to the food chain. Microbial protein, also known as single-cell protein (SCP), consist of algae biomass, fungi or bacteria that are currently used as food source for both humans and animals. Besides contributing as a sustainable source of protein to feed the world, producing SCP, is important to reduce waste disposal problems and production costs meeting the sustainable development goals. However, for microbial protein as feed or food to become an important and sustainable alternative, addressing the challenges of raising awareness and achieving wider public regulatory acceptance is real and must be addressed with care and convenience. In this work, we critically reviewed the potential technologies for microbial protein production, its benefits, safety, and limitations associated with its uses, and perspectives for broader large-scale implementation. We argue that the information documented in this manuscript will assist in developing microbial meat as a major protein source for the vegan world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112596
JournalFood Research International
Early online date23 Feb 2023
Publication statusPrint publication - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd


  • Microbial meat
  • Protein production
  • Single-cell protein
  • Sustainability
  • Proteins
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Sustainable Development
  • Bacteria
  • Vegans
  • Meat


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