MicroRNAs (miRNA) are key modulators of gene expression and so act as putative fine-tuners of complex phenotypes. Here, we hypothesized that causal variants of complex traits are enriched in miRNAs and miRNA-target networks. First, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for seven functional and milk production traits using imputed sequence variants (13~15 million) and >10,000 animals from three dairy cattle breeds, i.e., Holstein (HOL), Nordic red cattle (RDC) and Jersey (JER). Second, we analyzed for enrichments of association signals in miRNAs and their miRNA-target networks. Our results demonstrated that genomic regions harboring miRNA genes were significantly (P < 0.05) enriched with GWAS signals for milk production traits and mastitis, and that enrichments within miRNA-target gene networks were significantly higher than in random gene-sets for the majority of traits. Furthermore, most between-trait and across-breed correlations of enrichments with miRNA-target networks were significantly greater than with random gene-sets, suggesting pleiotropic effects of miRNAs. Intriguingly, genes that were differentially expressed in response to mammary gland infections were significantly enriched in the miRNA-target networks associated with mastitis. All these findings were consistent across three breeds. Collectively, our observations demonstrate the importance of miRNAs and their targets for the expression of complex traits.