Mitophylogenomics of the zoonotic fluke Echinostoma malayanum confirms it as a member of the genus Artyfechinostomum Lane, 1915 and illustrates the complexity of Echinostomatidae systematics

Linh Thi Khanh Pham, Weerachai Saijuntha, Scott P. Lawton, Thanh Hoa Le*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome or mtDNA) of the trematode Echinostoma malayanum Leiper, 1911 was fully determined and annotated. The circular mtDNA molecule comprised 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (cox1 − 3, cob, nad1 − 6, nad4L, atp6), two mitoribosomal RNAs (MRGs) (16S or rrnL and 12S or rrnS), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs or trn), and a non-coding region (NCR) rich in long and short tandem repeats (5.5 LRUs/336 bp/each and 7.5 SRUs/207 bp/each). The atp8 gene is absent and the 3′ end of nad4L overlaps the 5′ end of nad4 by 40 bp. Special DHU-arm missing tRNAs for Serine were found for both tRNASer1(AGN) and tRNASer2(UCN). Codons of TTT (for phenylalanine), TTG (for leucine), and GTT (for valine) were the most, and CGC (for Arginine) was the least frequently used. A similar usage pattern was seen in base composition, AT and GC skewness for PCGs, MRGs, and mtDNA* (coding cox3 to nad5) in E. malayanum and Echinostomatidae. The nucleotide use is characterized by (T > G > A > C) for PCGs/mtDNA*, and by (T > G ≈ A > C) for MRGs. E. malayanum exhibited the lowest genetic distance (0.53%) to Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfex, relatively high to the Echinostoma congeners (13.20–13.99%), higher to Hypoderaeum conoideum (16.18%), and the highest to interfamilial Echinochasmidae (26.62%); Cyclocoelidae (30.24%); and Himasthlidae (25.36%). Topology indicated the monophyletic position between E. malayanum/A. sufrartyfex and the group of Echinostoma caproni, Echinostoma paraensei, Echinostoma miyagawai, and Echinostoma revolutum, rendering Hypoderaeum conoideum and unidentified Echinostoma species paraphyletic. The strictly closed genomic/taxonomic/phylogenetic features (including base composition, skewness, codon usage/bias, genetic distance, and topo-position) reinforced Echinostoma malayanum to retake its generic validity within the Artyfechinostomum genus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-913
Number of pages15
JournalParasitology Research
Volume121
Issue number3
Early online date10 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPrint publication - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Keywords

  • Echinostoma/Artyfechinostomum malayanum
  • Echinostomata
  • Echinostomatidae
  • Genetic distance
  • Mitophylogenetics
  • Skewness
  • Tandem repeats

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