However, accurate simulations of nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes remain challenging. Models are limited by our understanding of soil-plant-microbe interactions and the impact of uncertainty in measured input parameters on simulated outputs. To improve model performance, thorough evaluations against in situ measurements are needed. Experimental data of N2O emissions
under two management practices (control with typical fertilization versus increased clover and no fertilization) were acquired in a Swiss field experiment. We conducted a multi-model evaluation with three commonly-used biogeochemical models (DayCent in two variants, PaSim, APSIM in two variants) comparing four years of data. DayCent was the most accurate model for simulating N2O fluxes on annual timescales, while APSIM was most accurate for daily N2O fluxes. The multi-model ensemble average reduced the error in estimated annual fluxes by 41% compared to an estimate using the IPCC derived method for the Swiss agricultural GHG inventory (IPCC-Swiss), but individual models were not systematically more accurate than IPCC-Swiss. The model ensemble overestimated the N2O mitigation effect of the clover-based treatment (measured: 39-45%; ensemble: 52-57%) but was more accurate than IPCC-Swiss (IPCC-Swiss: 72-81%). These results suggest that multi-model ensembles are valuable for estimating the impact of climate and management on N2O emissions.
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- biogeochemical modeling
- eddy covariance
- model validation