Since its first clinical application, methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for the treatment of human diseases. Despite great advantages, some properties such as poor absorption, short plasma half-life and unpredictable bioavailability have led researchers to seek novel delivery systems to improve its characteristics for parenteral and oral administration. Recently, great attention has been directed to hydrogels for the preparation of MTX formulations. This review describes the potential of hydrogels for the formulation of MTX to treat cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and central nervous system diseases. We will delineate the state-of-the-art and promising potential of hydrogels for systemic MTX delivery as well as transdermal delivery of the drug-using hydrogel-based formulations.