Nosemosis is a serious microsporidian disease of adult European honey bees caused by the spore-forming unicellular fungi Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. In this paper we describe the currently known techniques for nosemosis prevention and control including Good Beekeeping Practices (GBPs) and biosecurity measures (BMBs). Topics such as queen renewal, nosema-resistant bees and hygienic and control methods are described. Strong efforts are currently provided to find more a sustainable solution than the use of antibiotics. So far, it seems that the best way to approach nosemosis is given by an “integrated pest management strategy”, which foresees the contemporary application of different, specific GBPs and BMBs.
|Journal||Applied Sciences (Switzerland)|
|Early online date||13 Jan 2022|
|Publication status||First published - 13 Jan 2022|
- Biosecurity measures
- Good Beekeeping Practices