Not all risks are equal

CE Milne, J Liu, A Butler

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Analysis of a survey of Scottish farmers (162) confirmed that they do not perceive all types of risk to be equal. Choices with potential negative ethical or health & safety consequences were perceived to be riskier than those that might have negative financial and social outcomes. A negative relationship was found between perceived riskiness and stated likelihood of taking a risky course of action with one exception - where a health & safety harm might arise. The findings could assist the development of behavioural models with greater predictive powers. In addition, the study suggests that risk awareness is not the most limiting factor for improving health & safety in the Scottish farming industry.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
JournalInternational Journal of Agricultural Management
Issue number1
Early online date1 Jun 2018
Publication statusFirst published - 1 Jun 2018

Bibliographical note



  • Choice
  • Decision
  • Ordinal mixed-effects model
  • Risk perceptions
  • Risk preferences


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