Novel EPR-enhanced strategies for targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer: An update

Vahideh Mohammadzadeh, Niloufar Rahiman, Seyedeh Maryam Hosseinikhah, Mahmood Barani, Abbas Rahdar, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Saman Sargazi, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Sadanand Pandey, Rahul Bhattacharjee, Ashish Kumar Gupta, Vijay Kumar Thakur, Belay Zeleke Sibuh, Piyush Kumar Gupta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Pancreatic cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of morbidity worldwide, and theranostic approaches are ventured. The vast stroma surrounding PCa cells has been proven to play a pivotal role in tumor growth and invasion, sequestering chemotherapeutic drugs and reducing their delivery to tumor cells. By exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, nanotechnology has risen to the top of medical imaging and therapeutic modalities. The EPR effect is now considered a promising approach for delivering drug-loaded nanostructures to tumors. However, its application is limited due to a disordered vascular network and blocked or embolized blood vessels. Desmoplastic tumors have a dense stroma, so the permeability of the particles into the tumor is low, and these tumors are resistant to nanoparticle-based chemotherapy. There are several strategies for improving the EPR effect by modulating tumor blood vessels, angiogenesis, vascular structure, blood flow, and other factors affecting EPR. Furthermore, by modulating tumor vessels using nanostructures (i.e., nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles, polymers, nano-biomimetics, etc.) for drug delivery, the EPR effect can be significantly improved. This review will focus on the possible uses of nanostructures to deliver therapeutic drugs for PCa imaging and treatment via the EPR-mediated effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103459
JournalJournal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology
Early online date28 May 2022
Publication statusPrint publication - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Biological barriers
  • Drug delivery
  • EPR effect
  • Nanomaterials
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Theranostics
  • Tumor vasculature


Dive into the research topics of 'Novel EPR-enhanced strategies for targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer: An update'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this