A continuous demanding in raw chemicals cost reduction and processing simplification facilitates the exploration and development of new materials in current plastics industries. In this study, a novel carbonaceous filler material “asphaltene” extracted from inexpensive and abundant asphalt is blended into a thermoplastic elastomer poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) copolymer (SBS) for the fabrication of hybrid composites at different loadings via melt-compounding. Due to its intrinsic molecular rigidness and desirable compatibility with SBS, the prepared asphaltene/SBS composites displays excellent thermo-mechanical properties by improving the storage modulus in the glassy region by 19 % and in the rubbery region by 305 %, as well as increasing the thermal stability by up to 20 °C. The overall mechanical properties are also enhanced substantially by incorporation of asphaltene into the SBS matrix according to the filler loading in SBS: the tensile strength increased by 2.2 MPa, the maximum elongation by 268 %, Young’s modulus by 214 %, and toughness by 100.4 %. Although the introduced asphaltene inevitably led to a gradual increment in the viscosity of polymer melts from the filler–filler and filler–polymer interactions, homogeneous dispersion of the reinforcing fillers at optimum loading (20–30 wt%) in SBS matrix is still sustained.